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ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY SECOND REPORT
 
ON
 
 
REVIEW OF RAPE LAWS MARCH, 2000

 

 

D.O.No.6(3)(36)/2000_LC(LS)

           

                                                                                                                 March 25, 2000

 

Dear Shri Jethmalaniji,

 

            I am forwarding herewith the 172nd Report on Review of Rape Laws.

 

2.         In Writ Petition (Crl.) No.33 of 1997, the petitioner, “Sakshi” an organisation interested in the issues concerning women, approached the Supreme Court of India inter alia for directions concerning the definition of the expression “sexual intercourse” as contained in section 375 of the Indian Penal Code.

 

3.         The Supreme Court by its order dated 13th January, 1998 directed the Law Commission to indicate its response with respect to the issues raised in the above writ petition.  The Commission filed an affidavit dated 28.7.1998 setting  out in extenso the portions of its 156th Report on the Indian Penal Code dealing with the issues in question.  In the said Report, the then Law Commission (14th Law Commission) did not agree with the viewpoint of the writ petitioners except in certain minor respects.  The Supreme Court was inclined to agree with the submissions of the writ petitioners that the contents of the 156th Report did not deal with the precise issues raised in the writ petition.

 

4.         On the directions of the Hon’ble Court, the petitioner drew up a note containing the precise issues involved in the petition.  The Commission was asked by the Hon’ble Court by its order dated 9th August, 1999 to examine the said issues afresh.  The Court observed that the isses needed a thorough examination.  By the said order dated 9th August, 1999, the Hon’ble Court requested the Law Commission “to examine the issues submitted by the petitioners and examine the feasibility of making recommendations for amendment of the Indian Penal Code or deal with the same in any other manner so as to plug the loopholes”.

 

5.         A copy of the draft of comments prepared by the Law Commission was thereafter forwarded to Sakshi inviting their views thereon and for suggesting changes of a procedural nature, whether in the Criminal Procedure Code or the Evidence Act.  Later on, three other organisations, namely, Interventions for Support, Healing and Awareness – IFSHA, All India Democratic Women’s Association – AIDWA and the National Commission for Women – NCW  also presented their views on the proposed suggestions.

 

6.         After detailed discussions with these organisations, the Commission has recommended changes for widening the scope of the offence in section 375 and to make it gender neutral.  Various other changes have been recommended in sections 376, 376A to 376D.  We have also recommended insertion of a new section 376F dealing with unlawful sexual contact, deletion of section 377 of the IPC and enhancement of punishment in section 509 of the IPC.  In order to plug the loopholes in procedural provisions, we have also recommended various changes in the Code  of Criminal Procedure, 1973 and in the Evidence Act, 1872.

 

7.         The Hon’ble Supreme Court forwarded vide its order dated 18.2.2000 the comments of the petitioner on the Response and Recommendations of the Law Commission of India for consideration.  The Commission accordingly considered those comments and submitted its further resposne and recommendations dated 14.3.2000.

 

8.         The present Report focuses on the need to review the rape laws in the light of increased incidents of custodial rape and crime of sexual abuse against youngsters.  The crime of sexual assault on a child causes lasting psychic damage to the child and as such, it is essential to prevent sexual abuse of children through stringent provisions.  The UN Conventions and various constitutional provisions also underline the need for protecting the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse.  This Report aims at the attainment of these objectives.

 

            With regards,

                                                                                                Yours sincerely,

 

 

 

                                                                                        (B.P.JEEVAN REDDY)

 

Shri Ram Jethmalani,

Minister for Law, Justice & Co.Affairs,

Government of India,

Shastri Bhavan,

New Delhi.

 

 
INDEX
 
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
CHAPTER TWO
Views invited on proposed provisions
CHAPTER THREE
Changes recommended in the Indian Penal Code, 1860
CHAPTER FOUR
Changes recommended in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
CHAPTER FIVE
Changes recommended in the Evidence Act, 1872
CHAPTER SIX
Miscellaneous suggestions of the "Sakshi"
CHAPTER SEVEN
Conclusion
 
 
                     
 
        Annexure-A     Affidavit filed by Sakshi      
                       dated 03.08.1999
 
        Annexure-B     Amended draft on the relevant  
                       sections of IPC by the Law
                       Commission, forwarded to
                       Sakshi on 27.8.99 for
                       discussion
 
        Annexure-C     Copy of handout given by       
                       Sakshi
 
        Annexure-D     Copy of suggestions by Sakshi, 
                       IFSHA and AIDWA dated 13.9.99
 
        Annexure-E     Copy of suggestions by         
                       National Commission for
                       Women dated 17.9.99 and letter
                       No.JS/NCW/LC/Network/99
                       dated 14.10.99
 
        Annexure-F     Extract of section 409B of     
                       the Crimes Act, 1900 (New
                       South Wales) and
                       recommendations of the New
                       South Wales Law Commission
                       pertaining to it made in its
                       Report 87 on Review of section
                       409B of the Crimes Act 1900
                       (NSW) (Nov.1998)
 
 
                               
                                                         
                              CHAPTER ONE            
                              Introduction
 
        1.1.   Under an order dated August 9, 1999 made  in  Writ
        Petition  (Crl)  No.33 of 1997, the Supreme Court of India
        requested the Law Commission "to examine the issues raised
        by the petitioners and examine the feasibility  of  making
        recommendations  for amendment of the Indian Penal Code or
        deal with the same in any other manner so as to  plug  the
        loopholes."
 
        1.1.1. The    petitioner    `Sakshi',   an   organisation
        interested in the issues concerning women, had  approached
        the  Supreme  Court  of  India  with  the  aforesaid  Writ
        Petition praying for (a) issuance of a writ in the  nature
        of   a  declaration  or  any  other  appropriate  writ  or
        direction declaring inter alia that  `sexual  intercourse'
        as contained in section 375 of the Indian Penal Code shall
        include  all  forms  of penetration such as penile/vaginal
        penetration,    penile/oral    penetration,    penile/anal
        penetration,  finger/vaginal  and  finger/anal penetration
        and  object/vaginal  penetration  and  (b)  to   issue   a
        consequential  writ, order or direction to the respondents
        in the Writ Petition and to their servants and  agents  to
        register all such cases found to be true on investigation.
 
        1.1.2. The  Law  Commission  was  not made a party to the
        Writ Petition.  The Supreme Court however directed the Law
        Commission, by its Order dated 13th January, 1998, to
        indicate its response with respect to the issues raised in
        the said  Writ  Petition.    The  Law  Commission  in  its
        affidavit  dated  25.3.1998  brought  to the notice of the
        Hon'ble Court that the 156th Report of the Law  Commission
        on  the  Indian Penal Code had dealt, inter alia, with the
        issues raised in the Writ Petition,  but  since  the  said
        Report  was  not  yet placed on the table of the Houses of
        Parliament, the matter may be adjourned by a  few  months.
        The matter  was adjourned by three months.  Meanwhile, the
        aforesaid Report of the Law Commission was placed  on  the
        table of  both  the Houses of Parliament.  Thereafter, the
        Law Commission filed its affidavit dated  28.7.98  setting
        out  in  extenso  the  portions of the said Report dealing
        with the issues in question.  Suffice it to  say  that  by
        and  large  the  then Law Commission (14th Law Commission)
        did not agree with the viewpoint of the  writ  petitioners
        except  in certain minor respects which would be indicated
        at the appropriate stage later.  It is  after  considering
        the said affidavit and the affidavit filed by the Ministry
        of  Law,  Justice  and  Company  Affairs, that the Hon'ble
        Court passed the aforesaid order dated 9th August, 1999.
 
        1.1.3. The  order  of  the  Hon'ble  Court  records   the
        statement  of the learned counsel for the writ petitioners
        that  the  contents  of  the  156th  Report  of  the   Law
        Commission  were  known  to  the  petitioners,  but  since
        according to them the Report did not deal with the precise
        issues raised in the writ petition, a request was made  by
        the   counsel   for   the   petitioner   to  seek  further
        consideration of the issues by the Law Commission and  the
        Government of India.  The Court was inclined to agree with
        the said submissions.  The Court also noted that the 156th
        Report  was submitted by the Law Commission prior to these
        issues being referred to the Commission and  further  that
        the  said  Report  of  the Law Commission did not in terms
        deal with various aspects of the issues raised in the Writ
        Petition.   The  order  further  recorded  that   at   the
        suggestion  of  the Hon'ble Court, the petitioner did draw
        up a note containing the precise issues  involved  in  the
        Writ Petition  as  well  as other connected issues.  After
        perusing the same, the Court asked the Law  Commission  to
        examine the  said  issues  afresh.  A copy of the `precise
        issues' with the appendix and affidavit were sent  to  the
        Secretary, Law Commission with a request to place the same
        before   the   Chairman   of   the   Law   Commission  for
        consideration.   It  was  also  observed  that   the   Law
        Commission may, if so advised, call upon the petitioner to
        assist  it  in  such  manner  as  the  Commission  thought
        appropriate.  The issues,  the  Court  observed,  "need  a
        thorough examination".      The   matter  was  accordingly
        adjourned for three months within  which  period  the  Law
        Commission  was  expected  to  submit  its response to the
        Hon'ble Court.
 
        1.1.4. The order of the Hon'ble Court was received by the
        Secretary to the Law  Commission  on  19.8.99  and  placed
        before the Chairman.
 
        1.2.   "Precise  issues".- The `precise issues' submitted
        by the petitioner before the Court  and  which  have  been
        sent  to  the Law Commission for consideration are divided
        into three parts (Annexure-A).  Part I carries  the  title
        "Precise  issues  submitted  for  consideration of the Law
        Commission and the Government of India".  Part II  carries
        the heading "Existing inadequacies" and Part III is titled
        "Suggestions for  amendment to the Indian Penal Code".  We
        shall set out in brief the substance  of  the  submissions
        made in all the three parts.
 
        1.2.1. Part I: Precise issues submitted for consideration
        of  the  Law  Commission and the Government of India.- (1)
        Having regard to the widespread prevalence of child sexual
        abuse, would it not be appropriate to include all forms of
        penetration   such    as    penile/vaginal    penetration,
        penile/oral    penetration,    penile/anal    penetration,
        finger/vagina    and    finger/anal    penetration     and
        object/vaginal  penetration  within  the  meaning  of  the
        expression "penetration" in the Explanation to section 375
        of the   IPC.      The   restrictive   interpretation   of
        `penetration'  in  the  Explanation to section 375 defeats
        the very purpose and object underlying section 376(2)(f);
 
        (2)    Is it not wrong to classify the penetrative  abuse
        of  a child below the age of 12 as unnatural offence under
        section 377 IPC or as outraging the  modesty  of  a  woman
        under   section   354,   depending   upon  the  `type'  of
        penetration ignoring the `impact' on such child.
 
        (3)    Is   it   not   wrong   to   continue   to   treat
        non-consensual  penetration  upon  such a child as offence
        under section  377  IPC  on  par  with  certain  forms  of
        consensual penetration  (e.g.   consensual homosexual sex)
        where consenting party can be held liable as an abettor or
        otherwise.
 
        1.2.2. `Appendix A' appended to  Part  I  contains  three
        notes, which we shall refer to in seriatum:
 
        Note 1: The  Explanation to sections 375 and 376 says that
        "penetration  is  sufficient  to  constitute  the   sexual
        intercourse necessary  to  the  offence  of rape".  By the
        Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 1983, raping of a woman under
        twelve years of age  was  made  punishable  with  rigorous
        imprisonment  for  a term which shall not be less than ten
        years but which may be for life in addition to fine.    In
        such  a  situation, it would be appropriate to broaden the
        meaning  of  penetration  to  include  not  only   vaginal
        penetration  but also anal and oral penetration as well as
        penetration by any part of the body or by any object.
 
        Note 2: In a vast majority of child sexual abuse cases the
        penetration is   other   than   penile-vaginal.       Such
        penetration  causes  lasting  psychic damage to the child.
        In such a situation, a  restrictive  meaning  attached  to
        penetration is likely to prove inadequate.
 
        Note 3(a):     The 156th Report of the Law Commission has
        recommended  that  penile/oral penetration and penile/anal
        penetration be covered by section 377 IPC and that  finger
        penetration and object penetration into vagina or anus can
        be adequately covered under section 354 with a more severe
        punishment.  This recommendation requires reconsideration.
        Such  a  restrictive view fails to take into consideration
        several forms of child abuse and  the  further  fact  that
        very  often  the  sexual  abuse  of children is by persons
        known to them.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  rape  is  really
        intended   to   humiliate,  violate  or  degrade  a  woman
        sexually.  It adversely affects the sexual  integrity  and
        autonomy of   women   and   children.      The   aforesaid
        recommendation of the Law Commission therefore defeats the
        very object underlying the Criminal Law  (Amendment)  Act,
        1983  which  inserted  sub-section  (2)  and in particular
        clause (f)  thereof   in   section   376.      The   above
        recommendation  also  does  not take into account the fact
        that a child of tender years can not discern the degree of
        difference  in  terms  of  which  orifice   of   hers   is
        penetrated.    Certain  instances  are  then  set  out  to
        illustrate the aforesaid point.
 
        Note 3(b):     Under this note, the petitioner has sought
        to argue in the light of  the  instances  mentioned  under
        Note  3(a)  that  the  156th  Report of the Law Commission
        requires reconsideration.
 
        1.3.   Part II:       Existing  Inadequacies.-   Various
        instances  set  out in Appendix-B to Annexure-A (a copy of
        the submissions of Sakshi including Appendix-B is enclosed
        herewith) to this part, the petitioner argues,  would  not
        amount  to  rape  and  perhaps not even to natural offence
        under section 377 or to outraging the modesty of  a  woman
        under section  354,  in  view  of  the existing law.  They
        might just be a limited form of assault or criminal force,
        if at all, though all the said instances are  of  a  grave
        nature and   extremely   disturbing.     It  is  therefore
        necessary that there should be a rethinking on this  issue
        and  the  offence  of  `sexual  assault'  should  be  more
        precisely defined and its parameters indicated.
 
        1.4.   Part III:      Suggestions   for   amendment   to
        Indian  Penal  Code.-  This  part  sets  out  the  several
        amendments proposed by the petitioner.  Suffice it to  say
        that they seek to substitute the definition of `rape' with
        the  definition  of  `sexual  assault'  and make it gender
        neutral.  The object is to widen the scope of the offence.
        The expression `consent' is also sought to be defined.   A
        new  section,  section  375A  with the heading `Aggravated
        sexual assault' is sought to be created.  This new offence
        seeks to synthesise the  offences  now  categorised  under
        sub-section (2) of section 376 as well as sections 376B to
        376D.
 
 
 
 
                              CHAPTER TWO              
              VIEWS INVITED ON PROPOSED PROVISIONS
 
 
        2.1.   UN       Convention       and       Constitutional
        provisions.Several cases of child abuse have all over  the
        world have  caused grave concern to the humanity.  Article
        34 of the Convention on Rights of the Child  (20  November
        1989)  ordains the Member States to protect the child from
        all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual  abuse.    For
        these  purposes,  State  Parties  are required to take all
        appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral  measures
        to prevent:
 
               (a)  The  inducement  or  coercion  of  a child to
        engage in any unlawful sexual activity;
               (b)  The   exploitative   use   of   children   in
        prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;
               (c)   The   exploitative   use   of   children  in
        pornographic performances and materials.
 
        2.1.1. Article 39(f) of the Constitution of India, one of
        the Directive Principles  of  State  Policy  requires  the
        State  to  direct its policy, inter alia, towards securing
        that   childhood   and   youth   are   protected   against
        exploitation  and  against moral and material abandonment.
        There  is,  therefore,  great  need  for  tightening   the
        existing  provisions  relating  to  child  sexual abuse or
        assault.
 
        2.2.   Draft of the Law Commission's proposals.-     On     a
        consideration  of  the  `precise  issues' submitted by the
        petitioner and in the light of the order  of  the  Hon'ble
        Court  and  also  taking into account the laws in force in
        certain  western  countries  on  this  subject,  the   Law
        Commission  prepared  a  draft (Annexure-B) containing the
        proposed new sections, namely, sections  375,  376,  376A,
        376B,  376C, 376D in substitution of the existing sections
        375 to 376D and also  suggested  a  new  section,  section
        376E.   The purport of these new sections is to substitute
        the offence of `rape' under section 375 with  the  offence
        of  `sexual assault' by including all kinds of penetration
        in the vagina, anus or urethra of another,  whether  by  a
        part of  the  human body or by an object.  Section 376 is,
        accordingly, modified  in  the  light  of  the  change  in
        section 375.    Sections  376A,  376B,  376C  and 376D are
        retained substantially except adapting them to the changes
        made in the offence under section 375 and a few changes in
        the matter of punishment.  A new offence, namely,  section
        376E with the title `unlawful sexual contact' is sought to
        be created.  Besides the above, section 377 is proposed to
        be  deleted  as  unnecessary in the light of the preceding
        provisions.  Section 509 of  IPC  is  also  sought  to  be
        amended  providing higher punishment where the offence set
        out in the said section is committed with sexual intent.
 
        2.2.1. Views invited.- A  copy  of  the  said  draft  was
        forwarded to Sakshi on 27.8.99 and they were invited for a
        discussion on   13.9.99.     It  was  indicated  that  the
        discussion would not only be with  respect  to  the  draft
        prepared by the Law Commission but that they shall be free
        to  put forward their other suggestions and ideas, if any,
        and further they could also bring representations of other
        women's organisations, along with  them,  for  discussion.
        Accordingly,   three   persons,  namely,  Ms  Naina  Kapur
        (Director,   Sakshi),   Ms   Jasjit   Purewal   (Director,
        Interventions  for Support, Healing and Awareness - IFSHA)
        and  Ms  Kirti  Singh  (All   India   Democratic   Women's
        Association  -  AIDWA)  participated in the discussion, on
        behalf of their respective organisations.  All  the  three
        organisations  have  also put forward their suggestions in
        writing - apart from what  Sakshi  had  filed  before  the
        Supreme Court.
 
               We may mention that hereafter whenever we speak of
        or refer to Sakshi, it means not only the Sakshi, but also
        the   two   other   women's  organisations,  namely  IFSHA
        (Interventions for Support,  Healing  and  Awareness)  and
        AIDWA  (All  India Democratic Women's Association) as well
        as the National Commission for Women (NCW), who were  also
        heard on the proposals contained herein.
 
        2.3.   Views of the "Sakshi" on the IPC provisions.- On
        the first day of hearing (13.9.99), the said three persons
        expressed  their appreciation of the draft prepared by the
        Law Commission stating that it was a  substantial  advance
        on the  subject  and  met  many  of their ideas.  Even so,
        after a good amount of discussion, they came forward  with
        the following changes in the said draft:
 
        (a)    The  age  of the person assaulted - referred to in
        clause "sixthly" in section 375 and in Explanation (2)  to
        section  375  and  in section 376(1) (where the age of the
        wife is referred  to)  -  should  be  raised  to  sixteen.
        Raising the said age to eighteen may not be appropriate.
 
        (b)    A provision must be inserted to the effect that if
        the  person  assaulted  gives his/her age, the court shall
        presume it to be so.  A provision on the lines of  section
        114A of the Evidence Act be suggested.
 
        (c)    In  the  definition  of  sexual assault in section
        375,  there  should  be   an   explanation   saying   that
        penetration   shall   mean   penetration   to  any  extent
        whatsoever, inasmuch the penetration is never complete  in
        the case of children.
        (d)    Explanation  (2)  to draft section 375 (which says
        that sexual intercourse by a man with his  own  wife,  the
        wife  not  being under 15 years of age, does not amount to
        sexual assault)  should  be  deleted.      Forced   sexual
        intercourse  by  a husband with his wife should equally be
        treated as an offence just as any physical violence  by  a
        husband  against  the  wife  is  treated  as  an  offence.
        Following the same logic, they submitted  that  the  words
        "unless  the person subjected to sexual assault is his own
        wife and is not under 15 years of age  in  which  case  he
        shall  be punished with imprisonment of either description
        for a term which may extend to two years or with  fine  or
        with both" in section 376(1) of the Law Commission's draft
        [adaptation of the existing section 376(1)] should also be
        deleted.   Section 376A should also be deleted, they said,
        on the same reasoning.
 
        (e)    In the first proviso to draft section  376(1)  (in
        the  draft  of  the  Commission),  the  words "the father,
        grandfather or brother" should  be  substituted  with  the
        words  "a  person  holding position of trust vis-a-vis the
        other person" and further to  add  an  explanation  saying
        that the said expression shall include father/step father,
        brother/step  brother,  teacher,  instructor, guardian and
        the like.
 
        (f)    Consent should be  defined  to  mean  "unequivocal
        voluntary agreement".
 
        2.3.1. A  copy  of  the  handout  given  by  the  persons
        mentioned in paragraph 2.2.1, supra of  this  chapter,  on
        the first date of meeting is placed at Annexure-C.
 
        2.4.   Views  of  the "Sakshi" on the relevant provisions
        of the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Indian  Evidence
        Act.-  At  the  end of the discussion on the first day, it
        was indicated to the persons mentioned in para above  that
        if  they  wished  to  suggest  any changes of a procedural
        nature, whether in the Criminal Procedure Code or  in  the
        Evidence  Act,  they could send the same by the next date,
        which was specified as 17th September 1999.    Though  the
        "precise  issues"  did  not  speak  of  any changes in the
        procedural laws (and was confined to amendments to  Indian
        Penal  Code  only),  we  were  of  the opinion that unless
        certain  changes  are  effected  simultaneously   in   the
        relevant  provisions  of  the  CrPC  and Evidence Act, the
        purpose underlying the changes in the substantive law  IPC
        - may  not be fully served.  It is for this reason that we
        suggested  to  Sakshi   to   come   forward   with   their
        suggestions,  if  any, for amendment of procedural laws to
        achieve the  purpose  underlying  changes  in  substantive
        laws.   Accordingly,  they came forward with as many as 14
        suggestions proposing amendments not only in the  Criminal
        Procedure  Code  and  Evidence  Act but also in the Indian
        Penal Code  (Annexure-D).    The   procedural   amendments
        suggested by them are to the following effect:
 
        (1)    The   84th   Report  of  the  Law  Commission  had
        suggested that where the statement of a girl-victim  below
        twelve  years  of  age is recorded, it should be done by a
        woman police  officer  or  by  a  woman  belonging  to  an
        organisation interested in the cause of women or children.
        The  said  recommendation  should be accepted with certain
        changes set out in their note.
 
        (2)    The present proviso to sub-section (1) of  section
        160   of   the   Code  of  Criminal  Procedure  should  be
        substituted by the following proviso:
 
         "Provided that no male person  under  the  age  of
                sixteen  years  or  a  woman  shall be required to
                attend at any place other than his or her home  or
                place of his or her choice."
 
        (3)    A  new sub-section, namely, sub-section (6) should
        be inserted in section 160 CrPC to  the  effect  that  the
        statement  of a male person under the age of sixteen years
        or a female, during the course of investigation, should be
        recorded only in the presence of a relative, a friend or a
        social worker of the person's choice.
 
        (4)    A new section,  namely,  section  164A  should  be
        inserted in the Code of Criminal Procedure stating that as
        soon  as  a case of sexual assault is reported to a Police
        person, he shall  have  the  person  (allegedly  assaulted
        sexually)  examined  medically  by  a  registered  medical
        practitioner and  that  such  medical  practitioner  shall
        after  due  examination,  prepare a report setting out the
        various specified particulars.  This proposal is a  slight
        modification  of  the recommendation contained in the 84th
        Report of the Law Commission.
 
        (5)    Sub-sections (1A), (1B), (1C) and (1D)  should  be
        inserted  in  section 53 of the Criminal Procedure Code as
        recommended by the 84th Report of the Law Commission, with
        necessary adaptations.
 
        (6)    While granting bail to a person accused of  sexual
        assault,  one of the conditions which should be imposed by
        the court shall be that such person shall not  be  in  the
        proximity of the person assaulted.
 
        (7)    In  the  case of sexual assault, there shall be no
        interference with or disturbance of the natural habitat of
        the person sexually assaulted by or through  the  criminal
        justice process.
 
        (8)    The  investigation  and  trial  of sexual offences
        should be time-bound and should be  concluded  within  six
        months.
 
        (9)    The expression `social worker' shall be defined to
        mean  a  woman  interested  in or working for the cause of
        women and/or children and who is familiar with  issues  of
        violence against women and children.
 
        (10)(a) A  new  section  114B  should be introduced in the
        Evidence Act stating  that  where  in  a  prosecution  for
        aggravated  sexual  assault under sections 376A to 376D of
        the IPC, the question is whether the person  so  assaulted
        consented  to  it  and where such person states before the
        court that he/she did not  so  consent,  the  court  shall
        presume it to be so.
 
        (b)    Clause  (4)  in  section  155  to the Evidence Act
        (which permits the person accused of rape  or  attempt  to
        ravish  to  prove  that  the  prosecutrix was of generally
        immoral character) should be deleted.
 
        (c)    In  section  146  of  the  Evidence  Act,  another
        clause,   namely,  clause  (4)  should  be  added  stating
        expressly that in a prosecution  for  sexual  assault,  it
        shall  not  be  permissible  to  adduce evidence or to put
        questions in cross-examination  of  the  person  assaulted
        with respect to his/her previous sexual history, character
        or conduct whether to establish consent or otherwise.
 
        (d)    The  absence  of a medical report in the case of a
        sexual  assault  shall  not  be  a  factor   against   the
        complainant/person assaulted.
 
        (11)   There  should be a provision either in the CrPC or
        in the Evidence Act to the effect that  a  minor  who  has
        been  assaulted  sexually,  should not be required to give
        his/her evidence in the presence of the accused as it will
        certainly traumatise the minor.    Steps  should  also  be
        taken  to  provide  an appropriate and safe environment in
        which the child can recover.
 
        (12)   The testimony of  a  child  who  is  subjected  to
        sexual   assault   should  be  recorded  at  the  earliest
        opportunity by a judge/magistrate in  the  presence  of  a
        friend,  relative  or social worker whom the minor trusts.
        For a  proper  implementation  of  the  above  suggestion,
        videotape/circuit television should be provided.  Further,
        where  the  child  is  to be cross-examined, the questions
        shall be handed over to the judge who shall  in  turn  put
        those questions   to  the  minor.    While  recording  the
        evidence of the minor, appropriate breaks should  also  be
        given to make the minor feel comfortable.
 
        (13)   All  cases  of  sexual  assault should be tried by
        special  courts  which  shall   be   manned   by   judges,
        prosecutors and counsellors, `specially trained/sensitised
        to issues of sexual assault'.
 
        (14)   A  new  offence should be created by appropriately
        amending section 166 IPC making it an offence for a public
        servant to disobey the direction of  law  prohibiting  the
        summoning  of  a  minor/woman  at any place other than her
        place of choice and also a public servant who disobeys any
        direction of law with respect to the manner in  which  the
        investigation concerning a minor shall be conducted.
 
        2.4.1. Discussion on the suggestions of "Sakshi".-   Each
        of  the above suggestions were discussed in the Commission
        in the presence of the three persons representing organi-
        sations mentioned in para 2.2.1 above,in the light of  the
        84th  Report  of  the  Law Commission as well as the 154th
        Report of the Law Commission.  While we agree with some of
        the aforesaid suggestions (as would be  evident  from  the
        recommendations  set  out  in  the succeding chapters), we
        find ourselves unable to agree with all of them.
 
        2.5.   Views of the National Commission for  Women  (NCW)
        invited.-  The  Law  Commission  would also wish to put on
        record that before finalising their  recommendations,  the
        Law  Commission  had  also  sent  a letter to the National
        Commission for Women (NCW)  enclosing  the  aforementioned
        draft  (prepared  by  the Law Commission) (Annexure-B) and
        inviting them to come and have a discussion with  the  Law
        Commission on  16.9.99.  The National Commission for Women
        deputed their Joint Secretary, Ms Leena Mehendale.  One of
        the Members of the Law Commission, Mrs Justice Leila Seth,
        heard the Joint Secretary and also asked her  to  put  her
        ideas/suggestions in writing.  Accordingly, the NCW sent a
        set   of  suggestions  in  writing  signed  by  the  Joint
        Secretary.  A copy  of  the  said  proposals  is  appended
        herewith (Annexure-E).
 
 
                                                                  
                               CHAPTER THREE
        Changes recommended in the Indian Penal Code, 1860
 
 
 
        3.1.   Substitution of definition of `rape' by definition
               of `sexual assault'.
               Not   only   women   but  young  boys,  are  being
        increasingly subjected to forced sexual assaults.   Forced
        sexual  assault  causes  no  less trauma and psychological
        damage to a boy than to a girl subjected to such  offence.
        Boys  and  girls  both  are being subjected to oral sexual
        intercourse too.  According to some social activists  like
        Ms  Sheela  Barse,  both  young  girls  and boys are being
        regularly used for all kinds of  sexual  acts  and  sexual
        perversions  in  certain tourist centres like Goa - mainly
        for edification of the foreign tourists.  Sakshi have also
        recommended for widening  the  scope  of  the  offence  in
        section 375  and  to  make it gender neutral.  Some of the
        Western countries have already done  this.    It  is  also
        necessary  to  include  under  this new definition (sexual
        assault) not only penile penetration but also  penetration
        by  any  other part of the body (like finger or toe) or by
        any other object.  Explanation to  section  375  has  also
        been  substituted  by  us  to  say that penetration to any
        extent whatsoever shall be deemed to  be  penetration  for
        the purpose  of this section.  This is so provided for the
        reason that in the case of children, penetration is rarely
        complete - for physical reasons.  So far as the  Exception
        is  concerned, we have retained the existing Exception the
        only change made being in  the  matter  of  age;  we  have
        raised the age of the `wife' from fifteen to sixteen.  The
        age  of  the  person assaulted sexually referred to in the
        clause "sixthly" has also  been  raised  to  sixteen  from
        fifteen.
 
        3.1.1. We   may  also  mention  that  in  redrafting  the
        section, we have stuck to the existing provision as far as
        possible.   This  is  for  the  reason  that  since  these
        provisions have already been interpreted and elucidated by
        the decisions of the courts, it is better to stick to them
        rather than  use  new  expressions  and  new  wording.  In
        drafting clauses (a) to (e) in section 375, we have  drawn
        inspiration from the Criminal Law Western Australia.
 
        3.1.2. Substitution  of  existing  section 375 of the IPC
        recommended.- We accordingly recommend that  the  existing
        section 375 be substituted by the following:
 
        "375.  Sexual Assault:  Sexual assault means -
 
        (a) penetrating  the  vagina (which term shall include
                the labia majora), the  anus  or  urethra  of  any
                person with -
 
               i)      any part of the body of another person or
         ii)   an object manipulated by another person
 
               except  where  such penetration is carried out for
        proper hygienic or medical purposes;
 
        (b) manipulating any  part  of  the  body  of  another
                person  so  as  to cause penetration of the vagina
                (which term shall include the labia  majora),  the
                anus or the urethra of the offender by any part of
                the other person's body;
 
        (c) introducing any part of the penis of a person into
                the mouth of another person;
 
        (d)    engaging in cunnilingus or fellatio; or
 
        (e) continuing  sexual  assault  as defined in clauses
                (a) to (d) above
 
               in circumstances falling  under  any  of  the  six
        following descriptions:
 
               First- Against the other person's will.
 
               Secondly- Without the other person's consent.
 
               Thirdly- With the other person's consent when such
        consent  has been obtained by putting such other person or
        any person in whom such other  person  is  interested,  in
        fear of death or hurt.
 
               Fourthly- Where the other person is a female, with
        her consent, when the man knows that he is not the husband
        of such other person and that her consent is given because
        she  believes that the offender is another man to whom she
        is or believes herself to be lawfully married.
 
               Fifthly- With the consent  of  the  other  person,
        when,  at  the  time  of giving such consent, by reason of
        unsoundness of mind or intoxication or the  administration
        by  the  offender  personally  or  through  another of any
        stupefying or unwholesome substance, the other  person  is
        unable  to  understand the nature and consequences of that
        to which such other person gives consent.
 
               Sixthly-  With  or  without  the  other   person's
        consent,  when such other person is under sixteen years of
        age.
 
        Explanation:  Penetration to any extent is penetration for
        the purposes of this section.
 
        Exception:  Sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife,
        the wife not being under sixteen  years  of  age,  is  not
        sexual assault."
 
        3.1.2.1.       Representatives  of  Sakshi  wanted  us to
        recommend the deletion of the Exception, with which we are
        unable to agree.  Their reasoning  runs  thus:    where  a
        husband  causes  some  physical  injury to his wife, he is
        punishable under the appropriate offence and the fact that
        he is the husband of the  victim  is  not  an  extenuating
        circumstance  recognized by law; if so, there is no reason
        why concession should be made in the matter of offence  of
        rape/sexual  assault  where  the  wife happens to be above
        15/16 years.  We are not  satisfied  that  this  Exception
        should  be recommended to be deleted since that may amount
        to excessive interference with the marital relationship.
 
        3.2.   Modification of S.376.- So  far  as  the  proposed
        section  376  is  concerned,  we  are  not  suggesting any
        substantial changes except two and adapting  the  language
        of  the  section to accord with the change in section 375.
        In the light of instances coming before the courts and the
        instances mentioned in the Note  prepared  by  Sakshi,  we
        have  proposed  addition  of  a proviso to sub-section (1)
        (while  treating  the  existing  proviso  as  the   second
        proviso)  providing  that  where  the  sexual  assault  is
        committed by  the  father,  grandfather  or  brother,  the
        punishment should  be severe.  On the basis of suggestions
        made by Sakshi, we have also added the words "or any other
        person being in a position of trust or  authority  towards
        the  other person" after the words "father, grandfather or
        brother".  The second change suggested by  us  is  in  the
        matter  of  the  age  of  wife  referred  to  in  proposed
        sub-section (1) as also of the person assaulted in  clause
        (f) of  sub-section  (2).   The age "fifteen" is raised to
        "sixteen".
 
        3.2.1. The reasons for these changes are:  (1)  to  visit
        with  a  severe  penalty the near relations and persons in
        position of trust and authority who more  often  than  not
        commit the offence of sexual assault on the members of the
        family or  on unsuspecting and trusting young persons.  We
        have in this connection taken note of the extremely odious
        and debased conduct of the father of the minor girl in the
        facts highlighted in Sudesh Jakhoo v.  K.C.J.  and  others
        [1996  (3)  AD  Delhi  653 = (1996) 62 DLT 563] and (2) to
        maintain uniformity in the matter of age of  wife  or  any
        other  young  person  who  needs  special  protection - as
        sixteen.
 
        3.2.2. Views  of   "Sakshi"   considered.-   Though   the
        representatives  of  Sakshi  have suggested that we should
        delete the second proviso  to  section  376  (1)  and  the
        proviso to section 376 (2) (which confer a discretion upon
        the  court  to  award  a  sentence lesser than the minimum
        punishment prescribed by the  sub-sections),  we  are  not
        satisfied  that  there  are any good reasons for doing so.
        Any number of  situations  may  arise,  which  it  is  not
        possible   to  foresee,  and  which  may  necessitate  the
        awarding of lesser punishment than the minimum  punishment
        prescribed.    Safeguard  against  abuse  is  provided  by
        requiring that adequate and special reasons  be  mentioned
        in the judgment, for awarding such lesser punishment.  Nor
        is   there   justification  in  the  criticism  that  such
        discretion once conferred is liable to be abused  or  that
        it will always be misused to help the accused.
 
        3.2.3. Recasting of section 376 of the IPC recommended.-     
        Accordingly,  we  recommend  that  section  376  shall  be
        re-cast as follows:  -
 
        "376.  Punishment  for  sexual  assault  -  (1)  Whoever,
        except  in  the  cases  provided  for  by sub-section (2),
        commits sexual assault shall be punished with imprisonment
        of either description for a term which shall not  be  less
        than  seven  years but which may be for life or for a term
        which may extend to ten years and shall also be liable  to
        fine  unless the person subjected to sexual assault is his
        own wife and is not under sixteen years of age,  in  which
        case,  he  shall  be  punished with imprisonment of either
        description for a term which may extend to three years and
        shall also be liable to fine.
 
               If the sexual assault is committed by a person  in
        a  position  of  trust  or  authority  towards  the person
        assaulted or by a near relative of the  person  assaulted,
        he/she  shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a
        term which shall not be less than ten years but which  may
        extend  to  life  imprisonment and shall also be liable to
        fine.
 
               Provided that the  court  may,  for  adequate  and
        special  reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a
        sentence of imprisonment for a term of less  than  minimum
        punishment prescribed in this sub-section.
 
        (2)    Whoever,-
 
               (a) being a police officer commits sexual assault-
 
               (i)  within  the  limits  of the police station to
        which he is appointed; or
 
               (ii) in the premises of any station house  whether
        or  not  situated  in  the  police  station to which he is
        appointed; or
 
               (iii) on a person in his custody or in the custody
        of a police officer subordinate to him; or
 
               (b) being a public servant, takes advantage of his
        official position and commits sexual assault on  a  person
        in his custody as such public servant or in the custody of
        a public servant subordinate to him; or
 
               (c)  being  on the management or on the staff of a
        jail, remand home or other place of custody established by
        or under any law for the time  being  in  force  or  of  a
        women's  or  children's institution takes advantage of his
        official position and commits sexual assault on any inmate
        of such jail, remand home, place or institution; or
 
               (d) being on the management or on the staff  of  a
        hospital,  takes  advantage  of  his official position and
        commits sexual assault on a person in that hospital; or
 
               (e) commits sexual assault on a woman knowing  her
        to be pregnant; or
 
               (f)  commits  sexual assault on a person when such
        person is under sixteen years of age; or
 
               (g) commits gang sexual assault,
 
        shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment  for  a  term
        which  shall  not  be less than ten years but which may be
        for life and shall also be liable to fine :
 
               Provided that the  court  may,  for  adequate  and
        special  reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a
        sentence of imprisonment of either description for a  term
        of less than ten years.
 
        Explanation  1.-  Where  a  person  is subjected to sexual
        assault by one or more in a group  of  persons  acting  in
        furtherance of their common intention, each of the persons
        shall  be  deemed  to  have  committed gang sexual assault
        within the meaning of this sub-section.
 
        Explanation 2.- "Women's or children's institution"  means
        an  institution, whether called an orphanage or a home for
        neglected women or  children  or  a  widows'  home  or  an
        institution called by any other name, which is established
        and  maintained  for  the  reception  and care of women or
        children.
 
        Explanation 3.- "Hospital"  means  the  precincts  of  the
        hospital and includes the precincts of any institution for
        the    reception   and   treatment   of   persons   during
        convalescence or of persons requiring medical attention or
        rehabilitation."
 
        3.3.   Amendment of S.376A.-  Representatives  of  Sakshi
        wanted  us  to  recommend the deletion of section 376A (as
        well as Exception to section 375).  Their logic was  this:
        when a man who causes hurt or any other physical injury to
        his  own  wife  is  liable to be punished for such offence
        like any  other  person  causing  such  hurt  or  physical
        injury,  why  should  a  husband who sexually assaults his
        wife,  who  is  living  separately  under  a   decree   of
        separation  or  under any custom or usage, be not punished
        like any other person.  Section  376A,  which  provides  a
        lesser  punishment  to a husband who sexually assaults his
        own wife living separately in the aforesaid circumstances,
        they argued, is arbitrary and discriminatory.    They  say
        that  once  section 376A is deleted, the husband in such a
        case would be punished under section 376(1) which  carries
        higher punishment  than section 376A.  While we appreciate
        the force of said argument in the context of the wife  who
        is living separately under a decree of separation or under
        any  custom  or  usage, we can not at the same time ignore
        the fact that even in such a case  the  bond  of  marriage
        remains unsevered.       In   the   circumstances,   while
        recommending that this section should be retained  on  the
        statute book, we recommend enhancement of punishment under
        the section.
 
        3.3.1. Modification   in   section   376A   of   the  IPC
        recommended.- Accordingly,  section  376A  shall  read  as
        follows:  -
 
        "376A. Sexual assault by the husband upon his wife during
        separation.- Whoever commits sexual assault upon his wife,
        who  is  living  separately  from  him  under  a decree of
        separation or under  any  custom  or  usage,  without  her
        consent,  shall  be  punished  with imprisonment of either
        description for a term which shall not be  less  than  two
        years  and  which may extend to seven years and shall also
        be liable to fine."
 
        3.4.   Amendment of S.376B, 376C and 376D:  Having regard
        to the gravity of these offences, we recommend enhancement
        of punishment - with a minimum punishment of not less than
        five years.  We have also added an Explanation which  will
        govern all  these three sections.  The Explanation defines
        "sexual intercourse" to mean any of the acts mentioned  in
        clauses (a) to (e) of section 375.  Explanation to section
        375  will  however  apply  even  in  the  case  of  sexual
        intercourse as defined by the Explanation to this section.
 
        3.4.1. Modifications in sections 376B, 376C and  376D  of
        the  IPC  recommended.-  Accordingly,  section  376B  with
        necessary adaptations and changes, shall read as follows:
 
        "376B. Sexual intercourse by public servant  with  person
        in  his  custody.-  Whoever, being a public servant, takes
        advantage of his/her  official  position  and  induces  or
        seduces  any  person,  who  is  in his/her custody as such
        public servant or in  the  custody  of  a  public  servant
        subordinate  to  him,  to  have  sexual  intercourse  with
        him/her, such sexual  intercourse  not  amounting  to  the
        offence   of   sexual  assault,  shall  be  punished  with
        imprisonment of either description for a term which  shall
        not  be  less  than five years and which may extend to ten
        years and shall also be liable to fine.
 
               Provided that the  court  may,  for  adequate  and
        special  reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a
        sentence of imprisonment for a  term  of  less  than  five
        years.
 
        Explanation:   "Sexual  intercourse"  in  this section and
        sections  376C  and  376D  shall  mean  any  of  the  acts
        mentioned   in   clauses   (a)  to  (e)  of  section  375.
        Explanation to section 375 shall also be applicable."
 
        "376C. Sexual  intercourse  by  superintendent  of  jail,
        remand  home,  etc.-  Whoever, being the superintendent or
        manager of a jail, remand home or other place  of  custody
        established  by  or  under  any  law for the time being in
        force or of a  women's  or  children's  institution  takes
        advantage  of  his/her  official  position  and induces or
        seduces any inmate of such jail,  remand  home,  place  or
        institution  to have sexual intercourse with him/her, such
        sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of  sexual
        assault,  shall  be  punished  with imprisonment of either
        description for a term which shall not be less  than  five
        years  and which may extend to ten years and shall also be
        liable to fine.
 
               Provided that the  court  may,  for  adequate  and
        special  reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a
        sentence of imprisonment for a  term  of  less  than  five
        years.
 
        Explanation  1.-  "Superintendent"  in relation to a jail,
        remand home or other place of  custody  or  a  women's  or
        children's institution includes a person holding any other
        office  in such jail, remand home, place or institution by
        virtue of which  he/she  can  exercise  any  authority  or
        control over its inmates.
 
        Explanation  2.-  The  expression  "women's  or children's
        institution" shall have the same meaning as in Explanation
        2 to sub-section (2) of section 376.
 
        376D.  Sexual intercourse by any member of the management
        or staff of a hospital with any woman  in  that  hospital.
        Whoever, being on the management of a hospital or being on
        the  staff  of  a  hospital  takes  advantage  of  his/her
        position and has sexual intercourse  with  any  person  in
        that  hospital,  such  sexual intercourse not amounting to
        the offence of sexual  assault,  shall  be  punished  with
        imprisonment  of either description for a term which shall
        not be less than five years and which may  extend  to  ten
        years and shall also be liable to fine.
 
               Provided  that  the  court  may,  for adequate and
        special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose  a
        sentence  of  imprisonment  for  a  term of less than five
        years.
 
        Explanation.- The expression  "hospital"  shall  have  the
        same  meaning  as  in  Explanation 3 to sub-section (2) of
        section 376."
 
        3.5.   Insertion of section 376E:
               This is a wholly new section  recommended  by  us.
        We   have  called  it  the  offence  of  `unlawful  sexual
        contact'.  This  section  is  intended  to  cover  a  wide
        variety  of  offences  including sexual harassment at work
        place and sexual perversions of the kind mentioned in  the
        note submitted  by  Sakshi.    Sub-section (1) of this new
        section covers touching, directly or  indirectly,  with  a
        part  of  the body or with an object, any part of the body
        of another person (not being the spouse of  such  person),
        with  sexual  intent and without the consent of such other
        person.  In case the other person is below  sixteen  years
        of   age,   we   have   recommended   higher   punishment.
        Sub-section (2) is an  extension  or  elaboration  of  the
        offence  mentioned  in  sub-section (1), while sub-section
        (3) deals with a case where such offence is committed on a
        young  person  -  young  person  being  defined   by   the
        Explanation  to  mean  a  person  below the age of sixteen
        years.  If the  offence  of  unlawful  sexual  contact  is
        committed  on  a  young  person by a person with whom such
        young person is  in  a  relationship  of  dependency,  the
        punishment  is  rigorous  imprisonment which may extend to
        seven years or with fine or with  both  and  in  case  the
        offender happens to be the father, grandfather or brother,
        a still higher punishment is provided for.  In the case of
        a  `young  person',  consent  is  treated  as  irrelevant.
        (Sections 151, 152 and 153 of the Canadian  Criminal  Code
        also contain similar provisions).
 
        3.5.1. Insertion  of  new  section  376E recommended.- We
        therefore recommend that a new  section,  namely,  section
        376E be inserted in the IPC in the following terms:
 
        "376E. Unlawful  sexual  contact (1) Whoever, with sexual
        intent, touches, directly or indirectly, with  a  part  of
        the  body  or  with  an  object,  any  part of the body of
        another person, not  being  the  spouse  of  such  person,
        without  the  consent  of  such  other  person,  shall  be
        punished with simple imprisonment for  a  term  which  may
        extend to two years or with fine or with both.
 
        (2)    Whoever,  with sexual intent, invites, counsels or
        incites a young person to touch, directly  or  indirectly,
        with a part of the body or with an object, the body of any
        person,  including  the body of the person who so invites,
        counsels or  incites,  or  touches,  with  sexual  intent,
        directly or indirectly, with a part of the body or with an
        object  any  part  of the body of a young person, shall be
        punished with imprisonment of either description which may
        extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.
 
        (3)    Whoever being in a position of trust or  authority
        towards  a young person or is a person with whom the young
        person  is  in  a  relationship  of  dependency,  touches,
        directly or indirectly, with sexual intent, with a part of
        the  body  or with an object, any part of the body of such
        young person,  shall  be  punished  with  imprisonment  of
        either  description  which  may  extend to seven years and
        shall also be liable to fine.
 
        Explanation:   "Young  person"  in  this  sub-section  and
        sub-section  (2)  means  a person below the age of sixteen
        years."
 
        3.6.   Deletion of section 377:
               In the light of  the  change  effected  by  us  in
        section  375,  we  are  of  the  opinion  that section 377
        deserves to be deleted.  After the changes effected by  us
        in  the  preceding  provisions (sections 375 to 376E), the
        only content left  in  section  377  is  having  voluntary
        carnal intercourse  with  any  animal.   We may leave such
        persons to their just deserts.
 
        3.7.   Amendment of section 509:
               So far as this  section  is  concerned,  the  only
        change we are suggesting is enhancement of punishment.  We
        recommend  that  the  existing  section  509 be amended as
        follows:
 
        "509.  Word,  gesture  or  act  intended  to  insult  the
        modesty of a woman:
 
               Whoever,  intending  to  insult the modesty of any
        woman, utters any word, makes any  sound  or  gesture,  or
        exhibits  any  object  intending  that  such word or sound
        shall be heard, or that such gesture or  object  shall  be
        seen,  by such woman, or intrudes upon the privacy of such
        woman, shall be punished with simple  imprisonment  for  a
        term  which  may  extend  to three years and shall also be
        liable to fine.
 
        3.8.   New Section 166A, IPC:
               The  84th  Report  of  the  Law   Commission   had
        recommended  (para  3.20)  that  a  new  section,  namely,
        section 166A, be inserted in the Indian Penal Code.    The
        object  behind  this  new  section  was to punish a public
        servant  who  knowingly  disobeys  any  direction  of  law
        prohibiting him from requiring the attendance at any place
        of  any  person  for  the purpose of investigation into an
        offence or other matter or knowingly  disobeys  any  other
        direction  of  law regulating the manner in which he shall
        conduct such investigation and which  act  of  his  causes
        prejudice to  any  person.   The representatives of Sakshi
        with whom we  had  a  discussion,  requested  that  a  new
        section   as   recommended  by  84th  Report  of  the  Law
        Commission be recommended to be inserted in the IPC.  This
        provision must be understood in the light of the fact that
        in the next chapter, we are recommending several  measures
        with respect to the manner in which the statement of women
        and  children  (below  16  years)  should be recorded, the
        place where it should be recorded and so on.
 
        3.8.1. New     section     166A      of      the      IPC
        recommended.Accordingly,  we  recommend that a new section
        be introduced in the IPC in the following terms:
 
               "166A.  Whoever, being a public servant-
 
               (a) knowingly disobeys  any  direction  of
                the   law   prohibiting  him  from  requiring  the
                attendance at any place  of  any  person  for  the
                purpose  of investigation into an offence or other
                matter, or
 
               (b) knowingly disobeys any other direction
                of the law regulating the manner in which he shall
                conduct such investigation, to  the  prejudice  of
                any  person,  shall  be punished with imprisonment
                for a term which may extend to one  year  or  with
                fine or with both."
 
        3.9.   Views   of   "Sakshi"   for   defining   `consent'
        considered.- Lastly, we may refer to a request  of  Sakshi
        to  insert  the definition of "consent" for the purpose of
        the aforesaid sections.  We are  however  of  the  opinion
        that  no  such definition is called for at this stage, for
        the reason that  the  said  expression  has  already  been
        interpreted  and pronounced upon by the courts in India in
        a good number of cases.  Reference in this behalf  may  be
        made  to  page  700  of  the  Commentary on IPC by Justice
        Jaspal Singh (First Edition 1998) where it is  stated,  on
        the  basis  of  the  decisions  of  the Madras, Punjab and
        Nagpur High Courts, that "consent implies the exercise  of
        a  free  and untrammelled right to forbid or withhold what
        is being consented  to;  it  always  is  a  voluntary  and
        conscious  acceptance  of  what  is proposed to be done by
        another and concurred in by the former".
 
                           
                                                        
                            CHAPTER FOUR
        Changes recommended in the  Code  of  Criminal               
                          Procedure, 1973
 
 
        4.1.   Proposals  of  "Sakshi"  relating  to  the Code of
        Criminal Procedure.-   As  stated  in  chapter  two,  the
        representatives  of  Sakshi have come forward with as many
        as 14 recommendations proposing amendments to the Code  of
        Criminal Procedure and the Evidence Act.  We had mentioned
        them in the said chapter.  We shall now proceed to discuss
        them.
 
        4.2.   Addition  of  sub-sections  (3)  to (5) in section
        160, CrPC.- The 84th Report  of  the  Law  Commission  had
        recommended (paragraphs 3.1 to 3.15) that sub-sections (3)
        to (7)  be  added in section 160.  Instead of paraphrasing
        the reasons given in the 84th Report in our own words,  it
        would be appropriate to set out paragraphs 3.11 to 3.15 of
        that Report hereinbelow:
 
         "IV.   Interrogation  of  female victims of sexual
                offences
 
         3.11 Reporting and Investigation.-  These  matters
                concern  the  arrest  and  detention  of  women in
                general.   We  now  deal  with   certain   matters
                peculiar  to  women  who  are  victims  of  sexual
                offences.  Women who have been raped are reluctant
                to report it, partly because of the  embarrassment
                of discussing the details with male policemen, and
                partly  because  of  the  very  fear  of even more
                painful humiliation of being a witness in Court.
 
               They get scared and become confused  when,
                in the strange environment of the Court room, they
                have  to conduct themselves in a manner foreign to
                their custom and under a restraint  not  conducive
                to clear and coherent thought or free expression.
 
         3.12 Investigation by female police - No statutory
                change  recommended.- A woman is often discouraged
                from pressing a charge of  rape  or  other  sexual
                offence  by  the  fact that she usually encounters
                only male police and prosecution officers.  It  is
                presumably  for  this  reason  that  it  has  been
                suggested that the investigation of such  offences
                should be done by women police officers only.
 
               We  would  be  happy if the questioning of
                female victims of sexual offences would be done by
                women police officers only.  We are not,  however,
                inclined  to  recommend  a  statutory provision in
                this regard.  A mandatory provision to that effect
                may prove to be unworkable.  The number  of  women
                police  officers  in  rural  areas  is very small.
                Even in urban areas,  unless  a  centralised  cell
                (with  the  status of a police station) is created
                for investigation  into  sexual  offences  against
                women, such a provision may not be practicable.
 
               We  regard  this difficulty as a transient
                one.  An all-out effort  for  the  recruitment  of
                sufficient  number  of  women police officers, who
                could  be  drafted  for  the  police   duties   of
                interrogation and investigation, should be made.
 
         3.13   Practice  to  be  adopted  in  metropolitan
                cities.- Till then, in metropolitan cities or  big
                cities  where there are sufficient number of women
                police offficers, a practice should be established
                that  women  police  officers  alone   investigate
                sexual offences and interrogate the victim.
 
               We  are,  therefore,  not in favour of any
                statutory provision being made  in  this  respect,
                subject  to  what  we are recommending in the next
                paragraph.
 
         3.14  Interrogation  of  child  victim   of   rape
                Statutory  provision recommended.- The practice as
                suggested above could be adopted in  metropolitcan
                areas and  big  cities.    But there is one matter
                which is of importance for the whole country.   It
                is  necessary  that  in  the case of girls below a
                certain age - say,  below  twelve  years  who  are
                victims  of  rape,  there  should  be  a statutory
                provision  to  ensure  that  the  girl   must   be
                interrogated only  by  a  woman.    A woman police
                officer would be preferable.    But,  if  a  woman
                police  officer  is  not  available,  an alternate
                procedure as detailed below should be followed.
 
               The   alternate    procedure    that    we
                contemplate is this.  Where a woman police officer
                is  not  available,  the  officer in charge of the
                police station should forward a list of  questions
                to  a  qualified  female (we shall suggest details
                later) who would, after recording the  information
                as  ascertained  from the child victim, return the
                papers to the officer  in  charge  of  the  police
                station.   If  necessary,  further questions to be
                put to the child may be sent by the police to  the
                interrogator.
 
               For  the  present,  this  procedure may be
                applied to female victims  below  12  years.    It
                could  later  be  utilised  for child witnesses in
                general, if found practicable.
 
               The "qualified female"  whom  we  have  in
                mind   should  be  one  who  is  a  social  worker
                belonging to a recognised social organisation.  If
                she possesses some knowledge of law and procedure,
                it would be all the more useful, but that need not
                be a statutory requirement.
 
         3.15  Amendment  of  section  160  recommended  by
                insertion  of sub-sections (3) to (7).- In view of
                what is  stated  above,  we  would  recommend  the
                addition  of the following provision - say, as new
                sub-sections - in  section  160  of  the  Code  of
                Criminal Procedure, 1973:
 
                       "(3)  Where,  under  this chapter,
                        the statement of a girl under the  age  of
                        twelve  years is to be recorded, either as
                        first information of an offence or in  the
                        course   of   an   investigation  into  an
                        offence, and the girl is a person  against
                        whom an offence under section 354, 354A or
                        375 of the Indian Penal Code is alleged to
                        have  been  committed  or  attempted,  the
                        statement shall be recorded  either  by  a
                        female  police  officer  or  by  a  person
                        authorised by such organisation interested
                        in the welfare of women or children as  is
                        recognised  in  this  behalf  by the State
                        Government by notification in the official
                        gazette.
 
                       (4) Where the case is one to which
                        the provisions of sub-section  (3)  apply,
                        and   a   female  police  officer  is  not
                        available, the officer in  charge  of  the
                        police   station   shall,   in   order  to
                        facilitate the recording of the statement,
                        forward to the person referred to in  that
                        sub-section  a written request setting out
                        the  points  on   which   information   is
                        required to be elicited from the girl.
 
                       (5)  The  person  to  whom  such a
                        written request is forwarded shall,  after
                        recording   the  statement  of  the  girl,
                        transmit the  record  to  the  officer  in
                        charge of the police station.
 
                       (6)  where  the statement recorded
                        by  such   person   as   forwarded   under
                        sub-section  (5) appears in any respect to
                        require  clarification  or  amplification,
                        the   officer  in  charge  of  the  police
                        station shall return  the  papers  to  the
                        person  by  whom  it was forwarded, with a
                        request for clarification or amplification
                        on  specified  matters;  and  such  person
                        shall   thereupon   record   the   further
                        statement of the girl in  conformity  with
                        the  request  and return the papers to the
                        officer in charge of the police station.
 
                       (7)  The  statement  of  the  girl
                        recorded  and forwarded under sub-sections
                        (3) to (6) shall, for the purpose  of  the
                        law   relating  to  the  admissibility  in
                        evidence of statements made by any person,
                        be deemed to be a statement recorded by  a
                        police officer.""
 
        4.2.1. The  representatives  of Sakshi supported the said
        recommendation and wanted us to reiterate the same.
 
        4.2.2. The 154th Report of the Law Commission dealt  with
        the above  recommendation in paragraphs 6.5 to 6.9.  After
        setting out the aforesaid sub-sections in  para  6.5,  the
        154th    Report   makes   the   following   comments   and
        recommendation in paragraphs 6.6 to 6.9 of chapter XVIII:
 
               "6.6 The origin of this suggestion in  its
                embryonic   form   can   be   traced  to  the  Law
                Commission's Reports on "Rape and Allied Offences"
                and "Women in Custody".
 
               6.7 The Bill (NCW) has gone beyond the Law
                Commission's  earlier  recommendations  in   that,
                insisting  on  the  presence  of  a  female police
                officer.   Though  the  presence  of  such  female
                officer  is  useful  and  necessary, their absence
                should not lead to delay in the  investigation  of
                the offences.   Sub-sections (4), (5), (6) and (7)
                referred to above obligates the  officer  incharge
                of  the  police station to forward the person to a
                representative of a government, recognised women's
                organisation and the statement  recorded  by  such
                person  shall be deemed to be a statement recorded
                by the police officer.
 
               6.8 It may be pointed out  that  the  1994
                Bill does not incorporate the above amendment.
 
               6.9 We are of the opinion that section 160
                be amended on the lines suggested above subject to
                certain modifications.  The recommendation made in
                sub-section  (4)  of  NCW  Bill is not practicable
                having regard to the present condition and  dearth
                of female  police  officers.    It may also not be
                practicable  for  the   victim   or   any   person
                interested in her to approach the person mentioned
                in sub-section  (3).    Instead,  we  suggest that
                sub-section (4) may be amended to the effect  that
                where a female police officer is not available and
                to contact the person mentioned in sub-section (3)
                is  difficult, the officer in charge of the police
                station, for reasons to be  recorded  in  writing,
                shall  proceed with the recording of the statement
                of the victim in the presence of a relative of the
                victim.
 
         Further, the age of "twelve years"  be  raised  to
                "eighteen years" in conformity with the Convention
                on the Rights of the Child."
 
        4.2.3. Reiteration  of  the  recommendations  made in the
        154th Report.- On a consideration  of  all  the  relevant
        facts and the realities of life, we too are of the opinion
        that  the procedure indicated in the sub-sections (4), (5)
        and (6)  is  too  involved  besides  being  impracticable.
        Implementation  of the several steps mentioned in the said
        sub-sections (4) to (6) would indeed result in unnecessary
        harassment  to  the  victim  of  the  offence  or  to  the
        complainant, as the case may be.  We are inclined to agree
        with the opinion expressed in para 6.9 of the 154th Report
        of the  Law  Commission  in  this behalf.  We have however
        changed the language of sub-section  (3)  by  including  a
        woman government  officer.  Changes are also called for in
        the light of the amendments effected by Act 43 of 1983 and
        also in the light of the recommendations  made  by  us  in
        paras  3.2 and 3.5 (substitution of the offence in section
        375 and the addition of section 376E).
 
        4.2.3.1.       Insertion of sub-sections  (3)  &  (4)  in
        section   160   of   the   Code   of  Criminal  Procedure,
        1973.Accordingly, we  recommend  that  the  following  two
        sub-sections  be  inserted  in  section 160 of the Code of
        Criminal Procedure:
 
         "(3) Where under this chapter, the statement of  a
                female   is   to   be  recorded  either  as  first
                information of an offence or in the course  of  an
                investigation  into an offence and she is a person
                against whom an offence under sections  354,  375,
                376,  376A,  376B,  376C, 376D, 376E or 509 of the
                Indian  Penal  Code  is  alleged  to   have   been
                committed  or  attempted,  the  statement shall be
                recorded by a female police officer and in case  a
                female  police  officer  is  not  available,  by a
                female  government  servant   available   in   the
                vicinity  and  in case a female government servant
                is also not available, by a female  authorised  by
                an organisation interested in the welfare of women
                or children.
 
         (4)  Where  in  any  case none of the alternatives
                mentioned in sub-section (3) can be  followed  for
                the reason that no female police officer or female
                government  servant  or  a female authorised by an
                organisation interested in the  welfare  of  women
                and  children  is available, the officer in charge
                of the police station shall, after  recording  the
                reasons  in writing, proceed with the recording of
                the  statement  of  such  female  victim  in   the
                presence of a relative of the victim."
 
        4.3.   Substitution  of the proviso to sub-section (1) of
        section 160.- Sub-section (1) of section  160  deals  with
        the power of a police officer to require the attendance of
        witnesses  who  appear to be acquainted with the facts and
        circumstances of the case being investigated by him.    It
        also  casts  an  obligation upon the person so required to
        attend.  The proviso as it now stands, however, says  that
        "no  male  person under the age of 15 years or woman shall
        be required to attend at any place other than the place in
        which such male person or woman resides".    We  recommend
        raising  the  age  from  15  years  mentioned  in the said
        proviso to 16 years.
 
        4.3.1. Consideration of the view  of  "Sakshi"  regarding
        presence  of  a  relative  or  a friend or a social worker
        during the investigation.- At this stage, we may deal with
        another suggestion put forward by Sakshi to  provide  that
        even where the statement of a male person under the age of
        16  years  or  of a female is recorded by a police officer
        during the course of investigation, a relative or a friend
        or a social worker of the choice of such male person below
        16 years or the woman,  as  the  case  may  be,  shall  be
        allowed  to  be present throughout the period during which
        the statement is recorded.  We are inclined to agree  with
        this suggestion, particularly in the light of the decision
        of the Supreme  Court  in  Nandini Satpathy v.  P.L.  Dani
        (AIR 1978 SC 1025).
 
        4.3.2. Substitution of the proviso to sub-section (1)  of
        section  160  recommended.- Accordingly, we recommend that
        the  proviso  to  sub-section  (1)  of  section   160   be
        substituted to read as below:
 
         "Provided  that no male person under the age of 16
                years or woman shall be required to attend at  any
                place  other  than  the  place  in which such male
                person or woman  resides.    While  recording  the
                statement,  a  relative  or  a  friend or a social
                worker of the choice of the person whose statement
                is being  recorded  shall  be  allowed  to  remain
                present.  The relative, friend or social worker so
                allowed to be present shall not interfere with the
                recording of statement in any manner whatsoever."
 
        4.4.   Insertion of a new section, namely section 164A in
        the  Code  of  Criminal Procedure.- The 84th Report of the
        Law  Commission  had  recommended  insertion  of  such   a
        provision in  paragraphs  4.8  to  4.11 of chapter 4.  The
        reasons for such a provision and the  provision  suggested
        are the following:
 
               "III.  Examination of the victim
 
         4.8  Section  164A,  CrPC  (To be added).- We next
                deal with the victim.  In many cases,  the  report
                of  the  medical examiner as to the examination of
                the female victim is also  found  to  be  somewhat
                cursory  and  does  not  give adequate information
                about the material particulars which are necessary
                for an adjudication as to the various  ingredients
                of section  375.  Further, it is sometimes noticed
                that the medical examination report  is  not  sent
                promptly to  the  investigating  officer.    As  a
                result, the  possibility  of  tampering  with  the
                report remains.
 
               In   our   opinion,   the  report  of  the
                examination of the victim in a case of rape should
                (besides containing the usual formal  particulars)
                deal specifically with -
 
                       (i)     the age of the victim,
                (ii)   the  question  whether  the victim
                        was previously used to sexual intercourse,
                (iii)  injuries  to  the  body   of   the
                        victim,
                (iv)   general  mental  condition  of the
                        victim, and
                (v)    other  material   particulars   in
                        reasonable detail.
 
               It  is  also  necessary  that  the  report
                should note the time of examination  and  be  sent
                without delay to the investigating officer.  It is
                very   important  that  the  report  should  state
                reasons for the conclusions recorded.
 
         4.9 Need for legislative provisions.-  Ordinarily,
                such   matters  are  left  to  be  dealt  with  by
                executive instructions.  However, having regard to
                the importance of the subject, it would be  proper
                to insert in the Code of Criminal Procedure, at an
                appropriate  place,  a provision incorporating the
                guidelines that we have suggested above.   In  the
                light  of  the practical working of the provision,
                further improvements could be made in the relevant
                provisions.
 
         4.10 Section 164A, CrPC,  recommended.Accordingly,
                we recommend that the following new section should
                be  inserted  in  the  Code of Criminal Procedure,
                1973:
 
                       "164A.   (1)  Where,  during   the
                        stage  when  an offence of rape or attempt
                        to commit rape is under investigation,  it
                        is proposed to get the person of the woman
                        with  whom  rape  is  alleged to have been
                        committed  or  attempted,  examined  by  a
                        medical  expert, such examination shall be
                        conducted   by   a   registered    medical
                        practitioner,  with  the  consent  of  the
                        woman or of some person competent to  give
                        such  consent  on her behalf and the woman
                        shall  be  forwarded  to  the   registered
                        medical practitioner without delay.
 
                       (2)    The    registered   medical
                        practitioner  to  whom   such   woman   is
                        forwarded  shall without delay examine her
                        person and prepare a  report  specifically
                        recording  the  result  of his examination
                        and giving the following details:
 
                        (i) the name and  address  of  the
                                woman  and  of  the person by whom
                                she was brought,
                               (ii) the age of the woman,
                        (iii)  whether  the   victim   was
                                previously    used    to    sexual
                                intercourse,
                        (iv) marks of injuries, if any, on
                                the person of the woman,
                        (v) general  mental  condition  of
                                the woman, and
                        (vi)  other  material particulars,
                                in reasonable detail.
 
                       (3)   The   report   shall   state
                        precisely  the reasons for each conclusion
                        arrived at.
 
                       (4) The report shall  specifically
                        record that the consent of the woman or of
                        some person competent to give such consent
                        on her behalf to such examination had been
                        obtained.
 
                       (5) The exact time of commencement
                        and  completion  of  the examination shall
                        also be  noted  in  the  report,  and  the
                        registered   medical   practitioner  shall
                        without delay, forward the report  to  the
                        investigating  officer,  who shall forward
                        it  to  the  Magistrate  referred  to   in
                        section  173  as  part  of  the  documents
                        referred to in clause (a)  of  sub-section
                        (5) of that section.
 
                       (6)  Nothing in this section shall
                        be  construed  as  rendering  lawful   any
                        examination  without  the  consent  of the
                        victim or of any person competent to  give
                        such consent on her behalf."
 
         4.11  Medical examination of the victim of rape.In
                regard to the examination of  the  person  of  the
                accused,  section  53(2)  of  the Code of Criminal
                Procedure provides that whenever the person  of  a
                female  is  to be examined under that section, the
                examination shall be made only by,  or  under  the
                supervision   of,   a  female  registered  medical
                practitioner.
 
               The question whether a provision should be
                inserted to the effect that where a female  victim
                of a sexual offence is to be examined, the medical
                examination  shall  be  conducted only by a female
                medical practitioner has been carefully considered
                by us.  We think that a statutory provision is not
                necessary, for two reasons.  In the  first  place,
                this  is  almost  the invariable practice in India
                and a statutory mandate is not  needed.    In  the
                second  place, if a female victim does not wish to
                submit to examination by a male doctor,  there  is
                no legal  obligation  on  her  part to do so.  For
                that reason also, a  statutory  provision  is  not
                necessary.   It may be mentioned that such medical
                examination cannot be lawfully  made  without  the
                consent  of  the woman or of some person competent
                to give consent."
 
        4.5.   Reiteration of the above  proposal  in  the  154th
        Report.-  The  154th  Report  of  the  Law  Commission has
        reiterated the said  proposal  in  paras  7.1  to  7.3  of
        chapter XVIII.   The Commission expressed the opinion that
        such a provision is eminently  desirable  subject  to  the
        modification  that  medical examination be made preferably
        by a  female  medical  practitioner.    The  Report   also
        emphasises  the  importance and signifance of a speedy and
        detailed medical examination of rape  victims  and  speedy
        despatch of such report to the investigating officer.
 
        4.5.1. Acceptance  of  the  proposal  with  consequential
        changes.-  We   affirm   and   reiterate   the   aforesaid
        recommendations  contained  in the 84th and 154th Reports.
        However, in the light of the changes  proposed  by  us  in
        section  375,  necessary changes by way of adaptation have
        to be made.
 
        4.5.2. Insertion of section 164A in the Code of  Criminal
        Procedure recommended.- Accordingly, we recommend that the
        following section 164A be inserted in the Code of Criminal
        Procedure:
 
               "164A.   (1)  Where, during the stage when
                any  offence  under  section  376,  section  376A,
                section   376B,  section  376C,  section  376D  or
                section 376E is  under  investigation  and  it  is
                proposed  to  get the victim examined by a medical
                expert, such examination shall be conducted  by  a
                registered  medical practitioner, with the consent
                of the victim or of some person competent to  give
                such consent on his/her behalf.  In all cases, the
                victim should be sent for such examination without
                any delay.
 
               Provided  that if the victim happens to be
                a  female,  the  medical  examination   shall   be
                conducted  by  a female medical officer, as far as
                possible.
 
               (2) The registered medical practitioner to
                whom the victim is forwarded shall  without  delay
                examine   the   person   and   prepare   a  report
                specifically   recording   the   result   of   his
                examination and giving the following details:
 
               (i) the name and address of the victim and
                the person by whom he/she was brought,
               (ii) the age of the victim,
               (iii)  marks  of  injuries, if any, on the
                person of the victim,
               (iv)  general  mental  condition  of   the
                victim and
               (v)   other   material   particulars,   in
                reasonable detail.
 
               (3) The report shall state  precisely  the
                reasons for each conclusion arrived at.
 
               (4)  The  report shall specifically record
                that the consent of the victim or of  some  person
                competent  to  give such consent on his/her behalf
                to such examination had been obtained.
 
               (5) The exact  time  of  commencement  and
                completion  of the examination shall also be noted
                in  the  report,  and   the   registered   medical
                practitioner  shall  without  delay,  forward  the
                report to the  investigating  officer,  who  shall
                forward  it  to  the  Magistrate  referred  to  in
                section 173 as part of the documents  referred  to
                in clause (a) of sub-section (5) of that section.
 
               (6)  Nothing  in  this  section  shall  be
                construed  as  rendering  lawful  any  examination
                without  the  consent  of the victim or any person
                competent to give such consent on his/her behalf."
 
        4.6.   Insertion of a new section  53A  in  the  Code  of
        Criminal Procedure.- The 84th Report of the Law Commission
        had  recommended the insertion of new section 53A in paras
        4.5 to 4.7 of chapter 4, which reads as follows:
 
               "II.  Examination of the accused
 
         4.5 Provision  in  the  Code  -  Need  for  timely
                examination.-  The Code of Criminal Procedure has,
                in section 53, a general provision on the  subject
                of medical examination of the accused in all cases
                where  such  examination  would afford evidence of
                commission of offence.
 
               It is, however, seen that  the  report  of
                the  medical  examination  is often cursory, or is
                not sent in time, in cases of rape or  attempt  to
                commit rape.
 
               In  a  recent Calcutta case (Narayan Dutta
                v.  State, 1980 CrLJ 264,  paras  1-2),  the  High
                Court was constrained to observe-
 
                "It  is  also striking that the appellant,
                        though arrested on that  very  night  (9th
                        May) was  not  produced  before  Dr.   Pal
                        (P.W.  11) who examined P.Ws.  1 and 10 on
                        10.5.1970."
 
                4.6 Particulars to be entered and  reasons
                        to  be  given.-  It is also desirable that
                        the report should (besides containing  the
                        usual     formal     particulars)     deal
                        specifically with - (i)  the  age  of  the
                        accused,  (ii) injuries to the body of the
                        accused,   and   (iii)   other    material
                        particulars in   reasonable  detail.    It
                        should  also  note  the  precise  time  of
                        examination.   It  should  be sent without
                        delay   by    the    registered    medical
                        practitioner  to the investigating officer
                        and the latter should file it  before  the
                        Magistrate  empowered  to  take cognisance
                        along with the  documents  sent  with  the
                        challan under section 173(5) of the Code.
 
                4.7   Recommendation  as  to  section  53,
                        CrPC.- It is very important  that  reasons
                        should  be given for the opinion expressed
                        in the report.  Accordingly, we  recommend
                        the insertion in section 53 of the Code of
                        Criminal   Procedure,   of  the  following
                        sub-sections :
 
                       "Section 53(1A),  (1B),  (1C)  and
                        (1D),  Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 to
                        be inserted.
 
                       (1A) When a person accused of rape
                        or an attempt to commit rape  is  arrested
                        and  an examination of his person is to be
                        made  under  this  section,  he  shall  be
                        forwarded  without delay to the registered
                        medical practitioner by whom he is  to  be
                        examined.
 
                       (1B)    The   registered   medical
                        practitioner conducting  such  examination
                        shall  without  delay  examine such person
                        and   prepare   a   report    specifically
                        recording  the  result  of his examination
                        and giving the following particulars:
 
                               (i) the name  and  address
                                of  the  accused and of the person
                                by whom he was brought,
                               (ii)  the   age   of   the
                                accused,
                               (iii)  marks of injury, if
                                any, on the person of the accused,
                                and
                               (iv)    other     material
                                particulars in reasonable detail.
 
                       (1C)   The   report   shall  state
                        precisely the reasons for each  conclusion
                        arrived at.
 
                       (1D)    The    exact    time    of
                        commencement   and   completion   of   the
                        examination  shall  also  be  noted in the
                        report,   and   the   registered   medical
                        practitioner shall, without delay, forward
                        the  report  to the investigating officer,
                        who shall forward  it  to  the  Magistrate
                        referred  to in section 173 as part of the
                        documents referred to  in  clause  (a)  of
                        sub-section (5) of that section.""
 
        4.6.1.         Views   of   "Sakshi"   considered.-   The
        representatives of Sakshi supported the said proposal with
        a few additions.  By  means  of  these  additions  it  was
        sought   to   be  provided  that  the  registered  medical
        practitioner shall also state in his report  with  respect
        to  "any traces of blood, semen and evidence of any recent
        sexual activity in reasonable detail".  We  are,  however,
        of  the opinion that the said addition suggested by Sakshi
        is unnecessary since the provision  as  suggested  by  the
        84th  Report  is  comprehensive enough to take in the said
        particulars as well.  Accordingly, we affirm and reiterate
        the recommendation of the 84th Report,  subject,  however,
        to   changes   and   adaptations   in  the  light  of  our
        recommendation for substitution of section 375 of the IPC.
 
        4.6.2. New section 53A in the Code of Criminal Procedure,
        1973 recommended.- Thus the  proposed  section  53A  shall
        read as follows:
 
         "53A. (1)  When  a  person accused of any of the
                offences under sections  376,  376A,  376B,  376C,
                376D or 376E or of an attempt to commit any of the
                said  offences,  is arrested and an examination of
                his/her person is to be made under  this  section,
                he/she   shall   be  sent  without  delay  to  the
                registered medical practitioner by whom he/she  is
                to be examined.
 
               (2)  The  registered  medical practitioner
                conducting such examination  shall  without  delay
                examine   such   person   and   prepare  a  report
                specifically   recording   the   result   of   his
                examination and giving the following particulars:
 
                       (i)  the  name  and address of the
                        accused and the  person  by  whom  he  was
                        brought,
 
                       (ii) the age of the accused,
 
                       (iii)  marks of injury, if any, on
                        the person of the accused, and
 
                       (iv) other material particulars in
                        reasonable detail.
 
               (3) The report shall state  precisely  the
                reasons for each conclusion arrived at.
 
               (4)  The  exact  time  of commencement and
                completion of the examination shall also be  noted
                in   the   report,   and  the  registered  medical
                practitioner shall,  without  delay,  forward  the
                report  to  the  investigating  officer, who shall
                forward  it  to  the  Magistrate  referred  to  in
                section  173  as part of the documents referred to
                in clause (a) of sub-section (5) of that section."
 
        4.7.   Consequential amendments in the First Schedule  to
        the      Code      of     Criminal     Procedure,     1973
        recommended.Consequent upon  the  proposed  amendments  in
        sections 376 to 376D, 377 and 509 and the insertion of new
        section  376E  in  IPC,  the First Schedule to the Code of
        Criminal Procedure, 1973 will need to be amended  and  the
        existing  entries  in respect of sections 376 to 376D, 377
        and 509 of the IPC will have to be substituted  and  entry
        in respect of new section 376E will have to be inserted as
        under:
 
        ____________________________________________________________________
        376    Sexual assault Imprisonment   Ditto   Non-    Court of
                               for life or            bailable       Sessions
                               imprisonment
                               for 10 years
                               and fine
 
               Sexual assault Imprisonment   Non-    Ditto   Ditto
               by a man on    for 3 years    cognizable
               his own wife   and fine
               being under
               16 years of age.
 
               Sexual assault Imprisonment   Cogni-  Non-    Ditto
               committed by   for life and   zable   bailable
               a person in a  fine
               position of
               trust or
               authority
               towards the
               person assaulted
               or by a near
               relative of the
               person assaulted.
 
               Sexual assault Imprisonment   Cogni-  Non-    Ditto
               by a police    for life and   zable   bailable
               officer or by a fine
               public servant
               or by a person
               being on the
               management or on
               the staff of a
               jail, remand
               home or other
               place of custody
               or women's or
               children's
               institution or
               by a person on
               the management
               or on the staff
               of a hospital,
               taking advantage
               of his official
               position.
 
        376A   Sexual assault Imprisonment   Cogni-  Non-    Ditto
               by the husband for 7 years    zable   bailable
               upon his wife  and fine       (but only
               during separation.             on the
                                              complaint
                                              of the
                                              victim)
 
        376B   Sexual         Imprisonment   Cogni-  Non-    Ditto
               intercourse by for 10 years   zable   bailable
               public servant and fine       (but no
               with person in                 arrest
               his custody.                   shall be
                                              made
                                              without a
                                              warrant or
                                              without an
                                              order of a
                                              Magistrate)
 
        376C   Sexual         Ditto          Ditto   Ditto   Ditto
               intercourse by
               Superintendent of
               jail, remand
               home etc.
 
        376D   Sexual         Ditto          Ditto   Ditto   Ditto
               intercourse by
               any member of
               the management
               or staff of a
               hospital with
               any woman in
               that hospital.
 
        376E   Unlawful sexual Imprisonment   Non-    Bailable       Magis-
               contact.       for 2 years,   cognizable     trate
                               or fine or                     of the
                               both                           First
                                                             Class
 
               Unlawful sexual Imprisonment   Cogni-  Non-    Ditto
               contact with a for 3 years    zable   bailable
               young person.                  if
                                              information
                                              relating to
                                              the commission
                                              of the offence
                                              is given to
                                              an Officer-in-
                                              charge of a
                                              Police Station
                                              by the person
                                              aggrieved by
                                              the offence
                                              or by any
                                              person
                                              related to
                                              her/him by
                                              blood, or
                                              adoption or
                                              if there is
                                              no such
                                              relative, by
                                              any public
                                              servant
                                              belonging to
                                              such class or
                                              category as
                                              may be notified
                                              by the State
                                              Government in
                                              this behalf
 
               Unlawful sexual Imprisonment   Ditto   Non-    Court
               contact by a   for 7 years            bailable       of
               person in a    and fine                       Session
               position of
               trust or
               authority
               towards a
               young person.
 
        377    Delete         Delete         Delete  Delete  Delete
 
        509    Uttering any   Simple         Cogni-  Non-    Magis-
               word or making imprisonment   zable   bailable       trate
               any gesture    for 3 years                    of the
               intended to    and fine                       First
               insult the                                    Class
               modesty of a
               woman etc.
        ____________________________________________________________________
 
        4.8.   Amendment of sub-section (6) of section 198 of the
        Code  of  Criminal  Procedure,  1973.-   Consequent   upon
        proposed  amendment of section 376 of IPC, sub-section (6)
        of section 198 CrPC shall  be  amended  in  the  following
        manner:
 
         The   words   "sexual   intercourse"   shall    be
                substituted  by the words "sexual assault" and the
                word "fifteen" shall be substituted  by  the  word
                "sixteen".
 
        4.9.   Insertion  of  new  section  198B  of  the Code of
        Criminal Procedure, 1973.- After section 198A of the  Code
        of  Criminal  Procedure,  1973,  the following new section
        198B shall be inserted:
 
         "Prosecution  of  offences  under sub-sections (2)
                and (3) of section 376E of the Indian Penal Code.-
 
         No  court  shall  take  cognizance  of  an offence
                punishable  under  sub-sections  (2)  and  (3)  of
                section 376E of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860)
                except   upon  a  police  report  of  facts  which
                constitute such offence or upon a  complaint  made
                by  the  person  aggrieved  by  the  offence or by
                his/her father,  mother,  brother,  sister  or  by
                his/her father's or mother's brother or sister or,
                by any other person related to him/her by blood or
                adoption, if so permitted by the court".
 
        4.10.  Proposals for amending CrPC put forward by  Sakshi
        with  which  we  do  not  agree.-  Sakshi have put forward
        certain other suggestions which  we  have  set  out  under
        items 6, 7, 8 and 9 in chapter two of this report.  In our
        opinion, the said proposals are unnecessary in view of the
        existing  provisions  and  the  recommendations made by us
        herein.  It is  better  to  leave  these  matters  to  the
        discretion of the court.
 
 
 
                            CHAPTER FIVE         
          Changes recommended in the Evidence Act, 1872
 
 
        5.1.   Suggestions    of    "Sakshi"   considered.-   The
        representatives of Sakshi have suggested three  amendments
        to the  Evidence  Act, viz.  (a) amendment of section 114A
        saying that in a prosecution for aggravated sexual assault
        and where sexual intercourse is proved and the question is
        whether it was without the consent of the complainant  and
        the  complainant  states  in her evidence before the court
        that she did not consent, the court shall presume that she
        did not consent; (b) clause  (4)  in  section  155,  which
        permits a man prosecuted for rape or an attempt to ravish,
        to  show  that  the  prosecutrix  was of generally immoral
        character should be deleted and (c) in section 146, a  new
        clause,  clause  (4),  shall  be  added  stating that in a
        prosecution for sexual assault or  an  attempt  to  commit
        sexual  assault  and  where  the question of consent is in
        issue, it shall not be permissible to put any questions in
        the cross-examination of the complainant with  respect  to
        his/her  previous sexual history, character or conduct for
        proving consent or the quality of consent.
 
        5.1.1. Suggestion  No.1.-  So far as the first suggestion
        is concerned, it has evidently been  made  without  taking
        note  of  Act 43 of 1983 which had introduced section 114A
        in the Evidence Act.  The section reads as follows:
 
         "114A.  Presumption as to absence  of  consent  in
                certain  prosecutions  for rape.- In a prosecution
                for rape under clause (a) or clause (b) or  clause
                (c)  or  clause (d) or clause (e) or clause (g) of
                sub-section (2) of section 376 of the Indian Penal
                Code (45 of 1860), where sexual intercourse by the
                accused is proved and the question is  whether  it
                was  without  the  consent of the woman alleged to
                have been raped and she  states  in  her  evidence
                before  the  court  that  she did not consent, the
                court shall presume that she did not consent."
 
        5.1.2. A  reading of the above section shows that it does
        provide for the matter which the representatives of Sakshi
        wanted.
 
        5.1.3. Recommendations on section 114A  of  the  Evidence
        Act.-  It  is however necessary to point out that section
        114A is confined only to  the  aggravated  forms  of  rape
        mentioned  under clauses (a) to (e) and (g) of sub-section
        (2) of section 376.  It does not apply to sub-section  (1)
        of  section  376  or  for  that matter to sections 376A to
        376D.  But the representatives of Sakshi also wanted  such
        a  presumption to be raised only in respect of "aggravated
        sexual assault" and that  is  exactly  what  section  114A
        provides.  No amendment is therefore called for in section
        114A except some modifications - by way of adaptation - in
        the light of amendment proposed by us to section 375, IPC.
 
        5.1.4. Modification of section 114A of the  Evidence  Act
        recommended.-  Accordingly,  we  recommended  that section
        114A be modified to read as follows:
 
         "114A.  Presumption as to absence  of  consent  in
                certain  prosecutions  for  sexual  assault.- In a
                prosecution for sexual assault under (a) or clause
                (b) or clause (c) or clause (d) or clause  (e)  or
                clause  (g)  of  sub-section (2) of section 376 of
                the Indian Penal Code (45 of  1860)  where  sexual
                intercourse  by  the  accused  is  proved  and the
                question is whether it was without the consent  of
                the  other  person  alleged  to have been sexually
                assaulted and such other person states in  his/her
                evidence  before  the  court  that  he/she did not
                consent, the court shall presume that  he/she  did
                not consent.
 
         Explanation:  "Sexual intercourse" in this section
                and  sections  376C and 376D shall mean any of the
                acts mentioned in clauses (a) to  (e)  of  section
                375.   Explanation  to  section  375 shall also be
                applicable."
 
        5.1.4.1.       It goes without saying that the  aforesaid
        presumption  is  a  rebuttable  presumption of law (`shall
        presume') within the meaning of section 4 of the  Evidence
        Act.
 
        5.1.5. Consideration  of  the  suggestion  of "Sakshi" to
        create presumption in respect of the age of  the  victim.-
        We  may  in this connection refer to another suggestion of
        Sakshi that a similar presumption be created in respect of
        the age of  the  victim.    We  however  do  not  see  any
        necessity  for  such a provision since the question of age
        is really and ultimately  a  matter  of  evidence  and  be
        better left to the judgment of the court.
 
        5.2.1. Suggestion No.2.- For a proper appreciation of the
        suggestion  for  amendment  of  section  155,  it would be
        appropriate to set out section 155 in full  (omitting  the
        illustrations).  It reads as follows:
 
         "155.  Impeaching credit of witness.-  The  credit
                of  a  witness  may  be impeached in the following
                ways by the adverse party, or with the consent  of
                the court, by the party who calls him:-
 
         (1)  by  the  evidence of persons who testify that
                they, from their knowledge of the witness, believe
                him to be unworthy of credit;
 
         (2) by proof that the witness has been bribed,  or
                has accepted the offer of a bribe, or has received
                any other corrupt inducement to give his evidence;
 
         (3)  by  proof  of  former statements inconsistent
                with any part of his evidence which is  liable  to
                be contradicted;
 
         (4)  when  a  man  is  prosecuted  for  rape or an
                attempt to  ravish,  it  may  be  shown  that  the
                prosecutrix was of generally immoral character.
 
         Explanation.-  A witness declaring another witness
                to  be  unworthy  of  credit  may  not,  upon  his
                examination-in-chief, give reasons for his belief,
                but    he    may   be   asked   his   reasons   in
                cross-examination, and the answers which he  gives
                cannot  be contradicted, though if they are false,
                he may afterwards be  charged  with  giving  false
                evidence."
 
        5.2.2. Section  155  sets  out  the  manner  in which the
        credit of  a  witness  may  be  impeached.    Clause   (4)
        specifically deals  with  prosecution for rape.  In such a
        prosecution, the Act permits the man prosecuted  for  rape
        (or an attempt to ravish) to show that the prosecutrix was
        of generally  immoral  character.    We are of the opinion
        that this clause ought to be deleted.  We see no relevance
        or reasonable connection between offence of sexual assault
        (mentioned under sections 375 to  376E)  and  the  general
        immoral character of the victim.  No one can claim to have
        a  right  to  have  forced sexual intercourse with a woman
        even if she is generally of an immoral character.  In this
        context, we may refer to the pertinent observations of the
        Supreme Court in State of Punjab v.    Gurmit  Singh  (AIR
        1996 SC 1393) which are to the following effect:
 
         "15.   We  must  express our strong disapproval of
                the approach of the trial Court and its casting  a
                stigma on  the  character of the prosecutrix.  The
                observations lack sobriety expected  of  a  Judge.
                Such  like  stigmas have the potential of not only
                discouraging an even otherwise reluctant victim of
                sexual assault to bring forth complaint for  trial
                of criminals, thereby making the society to suffer
                by letting  the criminal escape even a trial.  The
                Courts are expected to  use  self-restraint  while
                recording   such   findings   which   have  larger
                repercussions so far as the future of  the  victim
                of  the  sex  crime  is  concerned  and even wider
                implications on the society as a whole - where the
                victim of crime  is  discouraged  -  the  criminal
                encouraged and  in turn crime gets rewarded.  Even
                in cases, unlike the present case, where there  is
                some  acceptable  material  on  the record to show
                that  the  victim   was   habituated   to   sexual
                intercourse,  no  such  inference  like the victim
                being  a  girl  of  "loose  moral  character"   is
                permissible  to  be  drawn  from that circumstance
                alone.  Even if the prosecutrix, in a given  case,
                has  been  promiscuous  in  her  sexual  behaviour
                earlier, she has  a  right  to  refuse  to  submit
                herself   to  sexual  intercourse  to  anyone  and
                everyone because she is not a vulnerable object or
                prey for being sexually assaulted  by  anyone  and
                everyone.   No stigma, like the one as cast in the
                present case should be cast against such a witness
                by the Courts, for after all it is the accused and
                not the victim of sex crime who is on trial in the
                Court."
 
        5.2.3. Deletion  of  clause  (4)  of  section  155 of the
        Evidence Act recommended.- Reference may also be  made  in
        this  context  to  the  84th  Report of the Law Commission
        which, inter alia, deals with this aspect.  In  chapter  7
        of the  Report  under  item  "V.  Past Sexual History" the
        Commission had emphasised  the  desirability  of  amending
        clause   (4)  in  section  155  (to  make  such  questions
        permissible only to the  extent  of  her  previous  sexual
        relationship  with  the  accused  but otherwise to bar any
        questions  regarding  the  prosecutrix's  general  immoral
        character  or  previous  sexual  experience)  as  well  as
        addition of a new  clause,  clause  (4)  in  section  146.
        Indeed  the  Commission had recommended insertion of a new
        section, section 53A in the Act.  It is not  necessary  to
        set  out  the entire reasoning given in the 84th Report in
        support of amendment of clause (4) in section 155 inasmuch
        as the purport of such amendment is now incorporated by us
        in section 146.  In that view, clause (4) in  section  155
        becomes untenable.    We  therefore  recommend deletion of
        clause (4) of section 155.
 
        5.3.1. Suggestion No.3.- So far as the addition of a  new
        clause,  namely,  clause  (4) in section 146 is concerned,
        the 84th Report of the Law Commission  had  suggested  the
        following addition:
 
         "(4)  In  a  prosecution  for  rape  or attempt to
                commit rape, where  the  question  of  consent  to
                sexual intercourse or attempted sexual intercourse
                is at issue, it shall not be permissible to adduce
                evidence    or    to    put   questions   in   the
                cross-examination of the  prosecutrix  as  to  her
                general  immoral  character, or as to her previous
                sexual experience with any person other  than  the
                accused for proving such consent or the quality of
                consent."
 
        5.3.2. The  84th Report of the Law Commission had further
        recommended the addition of a new section, section 53A, to
        the following effect:
 
         "53A.  In a prosecution for  rape  or  attempt  to
                commit  rape,  where  the  question  of consent to
                sexual intercourse or attempted sexual intercourse
                is at issue, evidence  of  the  character  of  the
                prosecutrix  or  of her previous sexual experience
                with any person other than the accused  shall  not
                be  relevant  on  the issue of such consent or the
                quality of consent."
 
        5.3.3. Obviously,  section  53A  was  recommended  to  be
        inserted  for  the  reason that section 146 is confined to
        questions that may be  put  in  cross-examination  and  is
        therefore  of  a limited operation, whereas section 53A is
        much wider and bars such evidence to  be  adduced  in  any
        manner whatsoever.
 
        5.3.4. Reiteration  of  the  recommendations  made in the
        84th Report and reference  to  the  New  South  Wales  Law
        Reform  Commission's recommendations.- We are in agreement
        with the  above  recommendations  contained  in  the  84th
        Report  of  the  Law  Commission and do herewith reiterate
        them.  In this context, however, we may refer to a set  of
        recommendations proposed by the New South Wales Law Reform
        Commission  to  amend section 409B of the Crimes Act, 1900
        (New South Wales).  Sub-section (2) of section 409B of the
        New South Wales Act provides that  "in  prescribed  sexual
        offence  proceedings,  evidence  relating  to  the  sexual
        reputation   of   the   complainant   is    inadmissible".
        Sub-section (3) makes evidence of any sexual experience or
        lack  of  sexual  experience  of  the  complainant equally
        inadmissible except in certain specified situations.   The
        New  South Wales Law Commission has proposed retaining the
        existing sub-section (2) as clause (a) of sub-section  (2)
        and  to  add  a new clause, clause (b) in sub-section (2).
        It has also proposed addition of sub-sections (3) to (11).
        We do not however propose to set out all the said proposed
        sub-sections,  except  sub-section  (2),  which  reads  as
        follows:
 
         "(2)(a)  In  proceedings  to  which  this  section
                applies,   evidence   relating   to   the   sexual
                reputation of the complainant is inadmissible.
 
         (b) Notwithstanding sub-section  (2)(a),  evidence
                about any sexual experience or sexual activity, or
                lack of experience or activity, of the complainant
                shall  not  be inadmissible merely because it also
                relates  to   the   sexual   reputation   of   the
                complainant."
 
        5.3.5. For ready reference, we are enclosing both section
        409B as it now stands as well as  the  recommendation  for
        its  amendment  as  suggested  by  the New South Wales Law
        Reform Commission.    (The  recommendation  was  made   in
        November 1998.) (Annexure-F)
 
        5.3.6. We  do  not  think  that  we  need  to  draw   any
        inspiration   from   the  highly  involved  and  intricate
        provisions suggested by the New  South  Wales  Law  Reform
        Commission  by  way of clause (b) of sub-section (2) or by
        way of sub-sections (3) to (7) of S.209-B.  The  provision
        as suggested herein are sufficient.  It is, of course, for
        the  government  to  decide  whether any provisions on the
        lines of the suggestions made by the New South  Wales  Law
        Commission should be made.
 
        5.3.7. In  the light of changes proposed by us in section
        375, the language of section 53A  and  of  clause  (4)  in
        section  146,  recommended  in  the 84th Report of the Law
        Commission, have to be modified and adapted.
 
        5.3.8. Consequential amendments recommended  in  proposed
        section  53A and proposed clause (4) of section 146 of the
        Evidence  Act.-  Accordingly,  we   recommend   that   the
        following amendments be made in the Evidence Act:
 
        5.3.8.1.       After section 53, the following section be
        inserted:
 
         "53A.   In  a  prosecution  for  an  offence under
                section 376, 376A, 376B, 376C, 376D or 376E or for
                attempt to commit  any  such  offence,  where  the
                question  of  consent is in issue, evidence of the
                character of the victim  or  of  his/her  previous
                sexual  experience  with  any  person shall not be
                relevant on the  issue  of  such  consent  or  the
                quality of consent."
 
        5.3.8.2.       In  section  146  of the Evidence Act, the
        following clause shall be added after clause (3):
 
         "(4) In a prosecution for an offence under section
                376, 376A, 376B, 376C, 376D or 376E or for attempt
                to  commit any such offence, where the question of
                consent is in issue, it shall not  be  permissible
                to  adduce  evidence  or  to  put questions in the
                cross-examination of  the  victim  as  to  his/her
                general   immoral  character,  or  as  to  his/her
                previous sexual experience  with  any  person  for
                proving such consent or the quality of consent."
 
 
                               CHAPTER SIX                 
                 Miscellaneous Suggestions of Sakshi
 
 
        6.1.   The representatives  of  Sakshi  have  made  three
        other suggestions which we have set out under items 11, 12
        and 13  in  chapter  two  of  this  Report.    So  far  as
        suggestion under item 11 is concerned,  we  may  refer  to
        section 273 of the Criminal Procedure Code, which requires
        that "except as otherwise expressly provided, all evidence
        taken  in  the  course  of  the trial or other proceeding,
        shall be taken in the presence of the accused or when  his
        personal  attendance is dispensed with, in the presence of
        his pleader".    We  do  not  think  that   this   general
        principle,  founded  upon  natural justice, should be done
        away with altogether in trials  and  enquiries  concerning
        sexual offences.    In an appropriate case, it may be open
        to the prosecution to  request  the  court  to  provide  a
        screen  in  such a manner that the victim does not see the
        accused, while at the same time providing  an  opportunity
        to  the  accused  to listen to the testimony of the victim
        and give appropriate instructions to his advocate  for  an
        effective cross-examination.    However,  with  a  view to
        allay any apprehensions on this score, a  proviso  can  be
        added to section 273 of the Criminal Procedure Code to the
        following effect:
 
         "Provided  that  where  the  evidence  of a person
                below sixteen years who is alleged  to  have  been
                subjected  to  sexual  assault or any other sexual
                offence, is to be recorded, the  court  may,  take
                appropriate measures to ensure that such person is
                not  confronted  by  the accused while at the same
                time ensuring the right  of  cross-examination  of
                the accused".
 
               The proviso can be placed above the Explanation to
        the Section.
 
        6.2.   The suggestion mentioned under item 12 is, in  our
        opinion,  impractical; it is not possible to accede to the
        said request.  The same comment holds good with respect to
        the proposal under item 13.  We are  therefore  unable  to
        make  any recommendation for the present in terms of or on
        the basis of the aforesaid  requests  of  Sakshi.
 
                   
 
                          CHAPTER SEVEN              
                            CONCLUSION
 
 
        7.1.   On  the  basis of the discussions contained in the
        preceding chapters, the Commission is  of  the  considered
        opinion  that  the following amendments need to be carried
        out in the Indian Penal Code, 1860; the Code  of  Criminal
        Procedure, 1973 and the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.
 
        7.2.   Changes recommended in the Indian Penal Code, 1860
 
        7.2.1. Substitution  of  existing  section 375 of the IPC
        recommended.- The existing section 375 be  substituted  by
        the following:
 
        "375.  Sexual Assault:  Sexual assault means -
 
        (a) penetrating the vagina (which term  shall  include
                the  labia  majora),  the  anus  or urethra of any
                person with -
 
               i)      any part of the body of another person or
         ii)   an  object  manipulated  by another person
 
               except where such penetration is carried  out  for
        proper hygienic or medical purposes;
 
        (b) manipulating any  part  of  the  body  of  another
                person  so  as  to cause penetration of the vagina
                (which term shall include the labia  majora),  the
                anus or the urethra of the offender by any part of
                the other person's body;
 
        (c) introducing any part of the penis of a person into
                the mouth of another person;
 
        (d)    engaging in cunnilingus or fellatio; or
 
        (e) continuing  sexual  assault  as defined in clauses
                (a) to (d) above
 
               in circumstances falling  under  any  of  the  six
        following descriptions:
 
               First- Against the other person's will.
 
               Secondly- Without the other person's consent.
 
               Thirdly- With the other person's consent when such
        consent  has been obtained by putting such other person or
        any person in whom such other  person  is  interested,  in
        fear of death or hurt.
 
               Fourthly- Where the other person is a female, with
        her consent, when the man knows that he is not the husband
        of such other person and that her consent is given because
        she  believes that the offender is another man to whom she
        is or believes herself to be lawfully married.
 
               Fifthly- With the consent  of  the  other  person,
        when,  at  the  time  of giving such consent, by reason of
        unsoundness of mind or intoxication or the  administration
        by  the  offender  personally  or  through  another of any
        stupefying or unwholesome substance, the other  person  is
        unable  to  understand the nature and consequences of that
        to which such other person gives consent.
 
               Sixthly-  With  or  without  the  other   person's
        consent,  when such other person is under sixteen years of
        age.
 
        Explanation:  Penetration to any extent is penetration for
        the purposes of this section.
 
        Exception:  Sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife,
        the wife not being under sixteen  years  of  age,  is  not
        sexual assault."
               Further we are not satisfied  that  the  Exception
        should be deleted.
                       (paragraphs 3.1.2 and 3.1.2.1, supra)
 
        7.2.2. Recasting  of section 376 of the IPC recommended.-
        Section 376 shall be recast as follows:
 
        "376.  Punishment  for  sexual  assault  -  (1)  Whoever,
        except  in  the  cases  provided  for  by sub-section (2),
        commits sexual assault shall be punished with imprisonment
        of either description for a term which shall not  be  less
        than  seven  years but which may be for life or for a term
        which may extend to ten years and shall also be liable  to
        fine  unless the person subjected to sexual assault is his
        own wife and is not under sixteen years of age,  in  which
        case,  he  shall  be  punished with imprisonment of either
        description for a term which may extend to three years and
        shall also be liable to fine.
 
               If the sexual assault is committed by a person  in
        a  position  of  trust  or  authority  towards  the person
        assaulted or by a near relative of the  person  assaulted,
        he/she  shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a
        term which shall not be less than ten years but which  may
        extend  to  life  imprisonment and shall also be liable to
        fine.
 
               Provided  that  the  court  may,  for adequate and
        special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose  a
        sentence  of  imprisonment for a term of less than minimum
        punishment prescribed in this sub-section.
 
        (2)    Whoever,-
 
               (a) being a police officer commits sexual assault-
 
               (i) within the limits of  the  police  station  to
        which he is appointed; or
 
               (ii)  in the premises of any station house whether
        or not situated in the  police  station  to  which  he  is
        appointed; or
 
               (iii) on a person in his custody or in the custody
        of a police officer subordinate to him; or
 
               (b) being a public servant, takes advantage of his
        official position and commits sexual assault on  a  person
        in his custody as such public servant or in the custody of
        a public servant subordinate to him; or
 
               (c) being on the management or on the staff  of  a
        jail, remand home or other place of custody established by
        or  under  any  law  for  the  time being in force or of a
        women's or children's institution takes advantage  of  his
        official position and commits sexual assault on any inmate
        of such jail, remand home, place or institution; or
 
               (d)  being  on the management or on the staff of a
        hospital, takes advantage of  his  official  position  and
        commits sexual assault on a person in that hospital; or
 
               (e)  commits sexual assault on a woman knowing her
        to be pregnant; or
 
               (f) commits sexual assault on a person  when  such
        person is under sixteen years of age; or
 
               (g) commits gang sexual assault,
 
        shall  be  punished  with rigorous imprisonment for a term
        which shall not be less than ten years but  which  may  be
        for life and shall also be liable to fine :
 
               Provided  that  the  court  may,  for adequate and
        special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose  a
        sentence  of imprisonment of either description for a term
        of less than ten years.
 
        Explanation 1.- Where a  person  is  subjected  to  sexual
        assault  by  one  or  more in a group of persons acting in
        furtherance of their common intention, each of the persons
        shall be deemed to  have  committed  gang  sexual  assault
        within the meaning of this sub-section.
 
        Explanation  2.- "Women's or children's institution" means
        an institution, whether called an orphanage or a home  for
        neglected  women  or  children  or  a  widows'  home or an
        institution called by any other name, which is established
        and maintained for the reception  and  care  of  women  or
        children.
        Explanation 3.- "Hospital"  means  the  precincts  of  the
        hospital and includes the precincts of any institution for
        the    reception   and   treatment   of   persons   during
        convalescence or of persons requiring medical attention or
        rehabilitation."
                               (paragraph 3.2.3, supra)
 
        7.2.3. Modification   in   section   376A   of   the  IPC
        recommended.- Section 376A shall read as follows:
 
        "376A. Sexual assault by the husband upon his wife during
        separation.- Whoever commits sexual assault upon his wife,
        who is living  separately  from  him  under  a  decree  of
        separation  or  under  any  custom  or  usage, without her
        consent, shall be punished  with  imprisonment  of  either
        description  for  a  term which shall not be less than two
        years and which may extend to seven years and  shall  also
        be liable to fine."
                               (paragraph 3.3.1, supra)
 
        7.2.4. Amendment of sections 376B,  376C  and  376D.-  We
        recommend  enhancement  of  punishment  -  with  a minimum
        punishment of not less than five  years.    We  have  also
        added  an  Explanation  which  will govern all these three
        sections.  The Explanation defines "sexual intercourse" to
        mean any of the acts mentioned in clauses (a)  to  (e)  of
        section 375.    Explanation  to  section  375 will however
        apply even in the case of sexual intercourse as defined by
        the Explanation to this section.
 
               Accordingly,  the modified sections 376B, 376C and
        376D of the IPC shall read as follows:
 
        "376B. Sexual intercourse by public servant  with  person
        in  his  custody.-  Whoever, being a public servant, takes
        advantage of his/her  official  position  and  induces  or
        seduces  any  person,  who  is  in his/her custody as such
        public servant or in  the  custody  of  a  public  servant
        subordinate  to  him,  to  have  sexual  intercourse  with
        him/her, such sexual  intercourse  not  amounting  to  the
        offence   of   sexual  assault,  shall  be  punished  with
        imprisonment of either description for a term which  shall
        not  be  less  than five years and which may extend to ten
        years and shall also be liable to fine.
 
               Provided that the  court  may,  for  adequate  and
        special  reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a
        sentence of imprisonment for a  term  of  less  than  five
        years.
 
        Explanation:   "Sexual  intercourse"  in  this section and
        sections  376C  and  376D  shall  mean  any  of  the  acts
        mentioned   in   clauses   (a)  to  (e)  of  section  375.
        Explanation to section 375 shall also be applicable."
 
        "376C. Sexual  intercourse  by  superintendent  of  jail,
        remand  home,  etc.-  Whoever, being the superintendent or
        manager of a jail, remand home or other place  of  custody
        established  by  or  under  any  law for the time being in
        force or of a  women's  or  children's  institution  takes
        advantage  of  his/her  official  position  and induces or
        seduces any inmate of such jail,  remand  home,  place  or
        institution  to have sexual intercourse with him/her, such
        sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of  sexual
        assault,  shall  be  punished  with imprisonment of either
        description for a term which shall not be less  than  five
        years  and which may extend to ten years and shall also be
        liable to fine.
 
               Provided that the  court  may,  for  adequate  and
        special  reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a
        sentence of imprisonment for a  term  of  less  than  five
        years.
 
        Explanation  1.-  "Superintendent"  in relation to a jail,
        remand home or other place of  custody  or  a  women's  or
        children's institution includes a person holding any other
        office  in such jail, remand home, place or institution by
        virtue of which  he/she  can  exercise  any  authority  or
        control over its inmates.
 
        Explanation  2.-  The  expression  "women's  or children's
        institution" shall have the same meaning as in Explanation
        2 to sub-section (2) of section 376.
 
        376D.  Sexual intercourse by any member of the management
        or  staff  of a hospital with any woman in that hospital.-
        Whoever, being on the management of a hospital or being on
        the  staff  of  a  hospital  takes  advantage  of  his/her
        position  and  has  sexual  intercourse with any person in
        that hospital, such sexual intercourse  not  amounting  to
        the  offence  of  sexual  assault,  shall be punished with
        imprisonment of either description for a term which  shall
        not  be  less  than five years and which may extend to ten
        years and shall also be liable to fine.
 
               Provided  that  the  court  may,  for adequate and
        special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose  a
        sentence  of  imprisonment  for  a  term of less than five
        years.
 
        Explanation.- The expression  "hospital"  shall  have  the
        same  meaning  as  in  Explanation 3 to sub-section (2) of
        section 376."
                               (paragraphs 3.4 & 3.4.1, supra)
 
        7.2.5. Insertion of new section 376E recommended.- A  new
        section,  namely,  section  376E be inserted in the IPC in
        the following terms:
 
        "376E. Unlawful sexual contact.- (1) Whoever, with sexual
        intent, touches, directly or indirectly, with  a  part  of
        the  body  or  with  an  object,  any  part of the body of
        another person, not  being  the  spouse  of  such  person,
        without  the  consent  of  such  other  person,  shall  be
        punished with simple imprisonment for  a  term  which  may
        extend to two years or with fine or with both.
 
        (2)    Whoever,  with sexual intent, invites, counsels or
        incites a young person to touch, directly  or  indirectly,
        with a part of the body or with an object, the body of any
        person,  including  the body of the person who so invites,
        counsels or  incites,  or  touches,  with  sexual  intent,
        directly or indirectly, with a part of the body or with an
        object  any  part  of the body of a young person, shall be
        punished with imprisonment of either description which may
        extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.
 
        (3)    Whoever being in a position of trust or  authority
        towards  a young person or is a person with whom the young
        person  is  in  a  relationship  of  dependency,  touches,
        directly or indirectly, with sexual intent, with a part of
        the  body  or with an object, any part of the body of such
        young person,  shall  be  punished  with  imprisonment  of
        either  description  which  may  extend to seven years and
        shall also be liable to fine.
 
        Explanation:   "Young  person"  in  this  sub-section  and
        sub-section  (2)  means  a person below the age of sixteen
        years."
                               (paragraphs 3.5 & 3.5.1, supra)
 
        7.2.6. Deletion   of   section  377.-  Section  377,  IPC
        deserves to  be  deleted  in  the  light  of  the  changes
        effected by  us  in section 375 to 376E.  We leave persons
        having carnal intercourse with any animal, to  their  just
        deserts.
                               (paragraph 3.6, supra)
 
        7.2.7. Amendment of section 509, IPC.- We recommend  that
        the existing section 509 be amended as follows:
 
        "509.  Word,  gesture  or  act  intended  to  insult  the
        modesty of a woman:
 
               Whoever,  intending  to  insult the modesty of any
        woman, utters any word, makes any  sound  or  gesture,  or
        exhibits  any  object  intending  that  such word or sound
        shall be heard, or that such gesture or  object  shall  be
        seen,  by such woman, or intrudes upon the privacy of such
        woman, shall be punished with simple  imprisonment  for  a
        term  which  may  extend  to three years and shall also be
        liable to fine."
                               (paragraph 3.7, supra)
 
        7.2.8. New  section  166A, IPC recommended.- We recommend
        that a new section 166A be introduced in the  IPC  in  the
        following terms:
 
               "166A.  Whoever, being a public servant-
 
               (a)  knowingly  disobeys  any direction of
                the  law  prohibiting  him  from   requiring   the
                attendance  at  any  place  of  any person for the
                purpose of investigation into an offence or  other
                matter, or
 
               (b) knowingly disobeys any other direction
                of the law regulating the manner in which he shall
                conduct  such  investigation,  to the prejudice of
                any person, shall be  punished  with  imprisonment
                for  a  term  which may extend to one year or with
                fine or with both."
                       (paragraphs 3.8 & 3.8.1, supra)
 
        7.2.9. No  definition  of  the  expression  "consent"  is
        called for at this stage.
                               (paragraph 3.9, supra)
 
        7.3.   Changes  recommended  in  the  Code  of   Criminal
        Procedure, 1973
 
        7.3.1. Insertion  of  sub-sections (3) and (4) in section
        160 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.- We recommend
        that the following two sub-sections be inserted in section
        160 of the Code of Criminal Procedure:
 
         "(3) Where under this chapter, the statement of  a
                female   is   to   be  recorded  either  as  first
                information of an offence or in the course  of  an
                investigation  into an offence and she is a person
                against whom an offence under sections  354,  375,
                376,  376A,  376B,  376C, 376D, 376E or 509 of the
                Indian  Penal  Code  is  alleged  to   have   been
                committed  or  attempted,  the  statement shall be
                recorded by a female police officer and in case  a
                female  police  officer  is  not  available,  by a
                female  government  servant   available   in   the
                vicinity  and  in case a female government servant
                is also not available, by a female  authorised  by
                an organisation interested in the welfare of women
                or children.
 
         (4)  Where  in  any  case none of the alternatives
                mentioned in sub-section (3) can be  followed  for
                the reason that no female police officer or female
                government  servant  or  a female authorised by an
                organisation interested in the  welfare  of  women
                and  children  is available, the officer in charge
                of the police station shall, after  recording  the
                reasons  in writing, proceed with the recording of
                the  statement  of  such  female  victim  in   the
                presence of a relative of the victim."
               (paragraphs   4.2.3  &  4.2.3.1, supra)
 
        7.3.2. Modification  of the proviso to sub-section (1) of
        section 160.- We recommend raising the  age  mentioned  in
        the proviso to sub-section (1) of section 160 from fifteen
        years to sixteen years.
                               (paragraph 4.3, supra)
 
        7.3.3. Substitution  of the proviso to sub-section (1) of
        section 160 recommended.- We recommend that in addition to
        the above modification, the proviso to sub-section (1)  of
        section 160 be substituted to read as follows:
 
         "Provided that no male person under the age of  16
                years  or woman shall be required to attend at any
                place other than the  place  in  which  such  male
                person or  woman  resides.    While  recording the
                statement, a relative or  a  friend  or  a  social
                worker of the choice of the person whose statement
                is  being  recorded  shall  be  allowed  to remain
                present.  The relative, friend or social worker so
                allowed to be present shall not interfere with the
                recording of statement in any manner whatsoever."
               (paragraphs 4.3.1 & 4.3.2, supra)
 
        7.3.4. Insertion of a new section, namely,  section  164A
        in  the  Code  of  Criminal Procedure, 1973.- We recommend
        that the following section 164A be inserted in the Code of
        Criminal Procedure:
 
               "164A.   (1)  Where, during the stage when
                any  offence  under  section  376,  section  376A,
                section   376B,  section  376C,  section  376D  or
                section 376E is  under  investigation  and  it  is
                proposed  to  get the victim examined by a medical
                expert, such examination shall be conducted  by  a
                registered  medical practitioner, with the consent
                of the victim or of some person competent to  give
                such consent on his/her behalf.  In all cases, the
                victim should be sent for such examination without
                any delay.
 
               Provided that if the victim happens to  be
                a   female,   the  medical  examination  shall  be
                conducted by a female medical officer, as  far  as
                possible.
 
               (2) The registered medical practitioner to
                whom  the  victim is forwarded shall without delay
                examine  the   person   and   prepare   a   report
                specifically   recording   the   result   of   his
                examination and giving the following details:
 
               (i) the name and address of the victim and
                the person by whom he/she was brought,
               (ii) the age of the victim,
               (iii)  marks  of  injuries, if any, on the
                person of the victim,
               (iv)  general  mental  condition  of   the
                victim and
               (v)   other   material   particulars,   in
                reasonable detail.
 
               (3)  The  report shall state precisely the
                reasons for each conclusion arrived at.
 
               (4) The report shall  specifically  record
                that  the  consent of the victim or of some person
                competent to give such consent on  his/her  behalf
                to such examination had been obtained.
 
               (5)  The  exact  time  of commencement and
                completion of the examination shall also be  noted
                in   the   report,   and  the  registered  medical
                practitioner  shall  without  delay,  forward  the
                report  to  the  investigating  officer, who shall
                forward  it  to  the  Magistrate  referred  to  in
                section  173  as part of the documents referred to
                in clause (a) of sub-section (5) of that section.
 
               (6)  Nothing  in  this  section  shall  be
                construed  as  rendering  lawful  any  examination
                without the consent of the victim  or  any  person
                competent to give such consent on his/her behalf."
                       (paragraphs 4.5.1 and 4.5.2, supra)
 
        7.3.5. Insertion  of  new  section  53A  in  the  Code of
        Criminal Procedure recommended.- The proposed section  53A
        shall read as follows:
 
         "53A. (1)  When  a  person accused of any of the
                offences under sections  376,  376A,  376B,  376C,
                376D or 376E or of an attempt to commit any of the
                said  offences,  is arrested and an examination of
                his/her person is to be made under  this  section,
                he/she   shall   be  sent  without  delay  to  the
                registered medical practitioner by whom he/she  is
                to be examined.
 
               (2)  The  registered  medical practitioner
                conducting such examination  shall  without  delay
                examine   such   person   and   prepare  a  report
                specifically   recording   the   result   of   his
                examination and giving the following particulars:
 
                       (i)  the  name  and address of the
                        accused and the  person  by  whom  he  was
                        brought,
 
                       (ii) the age of the accused,
 
                       (iii)  marks of injury, if any, on
                        the person of the accused, and
 
                       (iv) other material particulars in
                        reasonable detail.
 
               (3) The report shall state  precisely  the
                reasons for each conclusion arrived at.
 
               (4)  The  exact  time  of commencement and
                completion of the examination shall also be  noted
                in   the   report,   and  the  registered  medical
                practitioner shall,  without  delay,  forward  the
                report  to  the  investigating  officer, who shall
                forward  it  to  the  Magistrate  referred  to  in
                section  173  as part of the documents referred to
                in clause (a) of sub-section (5) of that section."
                       (paragraph 4.6.2, supra)
 
        7.3.6. Consequential  amendments in the First Schedule to
        the  Code  of  Criminal  Procedure,   1973   recommended.-
        Consequent  upon  the  proposed amendments in the IPC, the
        existing entries in respect of sections 376 to  376D,  377
        and  509  will have to be substituted and entry in respect
        of new section 376E, IPC  will  have  to  be  inserted  as
        under:
 
        ____________________________________________________________________
        376    Sexual assault Imprisonment   Ditto   Non-    Court of
                               for life or            bailable       Sessions
                               imprisonment
                               for 10 years
                               and fine
 
               Sexual assault Imprisonment   Non-    Ditto   Ditto
               by a man on    for 3 years    cognizable
               his own wife   and fine
               being
               under 16 years
               of age.
 
               Sexual assault Imprisonment   Cogni-  Non-    Ditto
               committed by   for life and   zable   bailable
               a person in a  fine
               position of
               trust or
               authority
               towards the
               person assaulted
               or by a near
               relative of the
               person assaulted.
 
               Sexual assault Imprisonment   Cogni-  Non-    Ditto
               by a police    for life and   zable   bailable
               officer or by a fine
               public servant
               or by a person
               being on the
               management or on
               the staff of a
               jail, remand
               home or other
               place of custody
               or women's or
               children's
               institution or
               by a person on
               the management
               or on the staff
               of a hospital,
               taking advantage
               of his official
               position.
 
        376A   Sexual assault Imprisonment   Cogni-  Non-    Ditto
               by the husband for 7 years    zable   bailable
               upon his wife  and fine       (but only
               during separation.             on the
                                              complaint
                                              of the
                                              victim)
 
        376B   Sexual         Imprisonment   Cogni-  Non-    Ditto
               intercourse by for 10 years   zable   bailable
               public servant and fine       (but no
               with person in                 arrest
               his custody.                   shall be
                                              made
                                              without a
                                              warrant or
                                              without an
                                              order of a
                                              Magistrate)
 
        376C   Sexual         Ditto          Ditto   Ditto   Ditto
               intercourse by
               Superintendent of
               jail, remand
               home etc.
 
        376D   Sexual         Ditto          Ditto   Ditto   Ditto
               intercourse by
               any member of
               the management
               or staff of a
               hospital with
               any woman in
               that hospital.
 
        376E   Unlawful sexual Imprisonment   Non-    Bailable       Magis-
               contact.       for 2 years,   cognizable     trate
                               or fine or                     of the
                               both                           First
                                                             Class
 
               Unlawful sexual Imprisonment   Cogni-  Non-    Ditto
               contact with a for 3 years    zable   bailable
               young person.                  if
                                              information
                                              relating to
                                              the commission
                                              of the offence
                                              is given to
                                              an Officer-in-
                                              charge of a
                                              Police Station
                                              by the person
                                              aggrieved by
                                              the offence
                                              or by any
                                              person
                                              related to
                                              her/him by
                                              blood, or
                                              adoption or
                                              if there is
                                              no such
                                              relative, by
                                              any public
                                              servant
                                              belonging to
                                              such class or
                                              category as
                                              may be notified
                                              by the State
                                              Government in
                                              this behalf
 
               Unlawful sexual Imprisonment   Ditto   Non-    Court
               contact by a   for 7 years            bailable       of
               person in a    and fine                       Session
               position of
               trust or
               authority
               towards a
               young person.
 
        377    Delete         Delete         Delete  Delete  Delete
 
        509    Uttering any   Simple         Cogni-  Non-    Magis-
               word or making imprisonment   zable   bailable       trate
               any gesture    for 3 years                   of the
               intended to    and fine                       First
               insult the                                    Class
               modesty of a
               woman etc.
        ____________________________________________________________________
 
                               (paragraph 4.7, supra)
 
        7.3.7. Amendment of sub-section (6) of section 198 of the
        Code  of  Criminal  Procedure,  1973.-   Consequent   upon
        proposed  amendment of section 376 of IPC, sub-section (6)
        of section 198 CrPC shall  be  amended  in  the  following
        manner:
 
         The    words   "sexual   intercourse"   shall   be
                substituted by the words "sexual assault" and  the
                word  "fifteen"  shall  be substituted by the word
                "sixteen".
                               (paragraph 4.8, supra)
 
        7.3.8. Insertion of new  section  198B  of  the  Code  of
        Criminal  Procedure, 1973.- After section 198A of the Code
        of Criminal Procedure, 1973,  the  following  new  section
        198B shall be inserted:
 
         "Prosecution of offences  under  sub-sections  (2)
                and (3) of section 376E of the Indian Penal Code
 
         No  court  shall  take  cognizance  of  an offence
                punishable  under  sub-sections  (2)  and  (3)  of
                section 376E of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860)
                except   upon  a  police  report  of  facts  which
                constitute such offence or upon a  complaint  made
                by  the  person  aggrieved  by  the  offence or by
                his/her father,  mother,  brother,  sister  or  by
                his/her father's or mother's brother or sister or,
                by any other person related to him/her by blood or
                adoption, if so permitted by the court".
                       (paragraph 4.9, supra)
 
        7.3.9. Amendment  of  section  273,  Code   of   Criminal
        Procedure,  1973.-  A  proviso  to the following effect be
        added under  section  273  above  the  Explanation  clause
        therein:
 
         "Provided  that  where  the  evidence  of a person
                below sixteen years who is alleged  to  have  been
                subjected  to  sexual  assault or any other sexual
                offence, is to be recorded, the  court  may,  take
                appropriate measures to ensure that such person is
                not  confronted  by  the accused while at the same
                time ensuring the right  of  cross-examination  of
                the accused".
                               (paragraph 6.1, supra)
 
        7.4.   Changes  recommended  in  the Indian Evidence Act,
        1872
 
        7.4.1. Modification of section 114A of the  Evidence  Act
        recommended.-  We  recommend that section 114A be modified
        to read as follows:
 
         "114A.  Presumption as to absence  of  consent  in
                certain  prosecutions  for  sexual  assault.- In a
                prosecution for sexual assault under (a) or clause
                (b) or clause (c) or clause (d) or clause  (e)  or
                clause  (g)  of  sub-section (2) of section 376 of
                the Indian Penal Code (45 of  1860)  where  sexual
                intercourse  by  the  accused  is  proved  and the
                question is whether it was without the consent  of
                the  other  person  alleged  to have been sexually
                assaulted and such other person states in  his/her
                evidence  before  the  court  that  he/she did not
                consent, the court shall presume that  he/she  did
                not consent.
 
         Explanation:  "Sexual intercourse" in this section
                and  sections  376C and 376D shall mean any of the
                acts mentioned in clauses (a) to  (e)  of  section
                375.   Explanation  to  section  375 shall also be
                applicable."
                               (paragraph 5.1.4, supra)
 
               It   goes   without   saying  that  the  aforesaid
        presumption is a rebuttable  presumption  of  law  ("shall
        presume")  within the meaning of section 4 of the Evidence
        Act.
                               (paragraph 5.1.4.1, supra)
 
        7.4.2. Deletion of clause  (4)  of  section  155  of  the
        Evidence  Act.-  We  recommend  deletion  of clause (4) of
        section 155 of the Evidence Act.
                       (paragraphs 5.2.2 and 5.2.3, supra)
 
        7.4.3. Amendments recommended in  proposed  section  53A,
        Evidence  Act.-  We  recommend  that after section 53, the
        following section be inserted:
 
         "53A.   In  a  prosecution  for  an  offence under
                section 376, 376A, 376B, 376C, 376D or 376E or for
                attempt to commit  any  such  offence,  where  the
                question  of  consent is in issue, evidence of the
                character of the victim  or  of  his/her  previous
                sexual  experience  with  any  person shall not be
                relevant on the  issue  of  such  consent  or  the
                quality of consent."
                               (paragraph 5.3.8.1, supra)
 
        7.4.4. Insertion  of  clause  (4)  in  section 146 of the
        Evidence Act recommended.- In section 146 of the  Evidence
        Act, the following clause shall be added after clause (3):
 
         "(4) In a prosecution for an offence under section
                376, 376A, 376B, 376C, 376D or 376E or for attempt
                to commit any such offence, where the question  of
                consent  is  in issue, it shall not be permissible
                to adduce evidence or  to  put  questions  in  the
                cross-examination  of  the  victim  as  to his/her
                general  immoral  character,  or  as  to   his/her
                previous  sexual  experience  with  any person for
                proving such consent or the quality of consent."
                       (paragraph 5.3.8.2, supra)
 
               We recommend accordingly and urge  the  Government
        to initiate steps to amend all the three Acts, namely, the
        Indian  Penal Code, the Code of Criminal Procedure and the
        Indian Evidence Act on the lines suggested by us.
 
 
 
         (MR.JUSTICE B.P. JEEVAN REDDY)(RETD)
         CHAIRMAN
 
 
 
      (MS.JUSTICE LEILA SETH)(RETD)(DR.N.M. GHATATE)(DR.SUBHASH C.JAIN)
               MEMBER                 MEMBER          MEMBER SECRETARY
 
        
 
Dated:  13.03.2000